Injury (from the Greek trauma – wound), damage in the human body caused by the action of environmental factors. There are injuries: depending on the type of traumatic factor – mechanical, thermal (burns, frostbite), chemical injuries, barotrauma (due to a sharp change in atmospheric pressure), electrical injury, etc., as well as combined injuries, for example, a combination of mechanical injury and burn; from the duration of exposure to the traumatic factor – acute and chronic injuries; from the circumstances under which the injury occurred – domestic, industrial, sports, combat, etc.
Mechanical injuries can be open (wounds) and closed, that is, without violating the integrity of the skin; uncomplicated and with the development of complications – suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, traumatic toxicosis, etc.; isolated (within an organ or limb segment), multiple (damage to several organs in one cavity or several limb segments) and combined (simultaneous damage to internal organs and the musculoskeletal system). Allocate bruises, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, ruptures. They can be accompanied by bleeding, edema, inflammatory reaction, necrosis (necrosis) of tissues. Severe and extensive injuries are accompanied by shock and are life-threatening. A special type of trauma is mental trauma associated with difficult experiences (in particular, as a result of traumatic verbal influence); it can lead to painful reactions in the psychic and vegetative spheres (depression, neurosis, etc.).
Timely provision of first aid for injuries and treatment (which, depending on the nature of the injury, is carried out by doctors of various specialties) can prevent severe post-traumatic complications.