The reasons for the appearance of spider veins can be different: venous insufficiency, in women – previous diseases or hormonal failure in the body. A spider vein does not pose a health hazard, but it can be a serious cosmetic flaw, especially if it appears on the face.
Spider veins (telangiectasias) are dilated intradermal capillaries (small blood vessels) of red or blue color, with a diameter of 0.1-1.5 mm. Normally, the diameter of blood vessels in human skin is approximately 0.02 mm. The size, color and shape of spider veins is determined by their origin. Red and thin spider veins that do not protrude above the skin surface develop from capillaries and arterioles, blue, wider ones form from venules. By themselves, spider veins are not dangerous to health, but they are a signal that the vessels need to be strengthened. In addition, spider veins are a noticeable cosmetic defect.
Spider veins (telangiectasias) can appear in different places: red linear vascular telangiectasias are not often found on the face, especially on the nose and cheeks – this disease is called rosacea. On the lower extremities, blue and red linear and tree-like telangiectasias are more often found, which are sometimes difficult to call asterisks. Rather, they resemble a grid. This is traditionally a consequence of the development of varicose veins of the lower extremities.
The reasons for the appearance of spider veins are varied. Among them are hereditary predisposition, liver disease, venous outflow disorders, blood clotting disorders, imbalance of female sex hormones, prolonged load on the legs in an upright position, pregnancy and childbirth. Excessive exposure to the sun, solarium abuse, frostbite of the skin, hormone therapy, deep facial skin peeling and radiation therapy can provoke the appearance of spider veins.
Treatment (removal) of spider veins
Treating spider veins with any gels, creams, or oral products is incredible. Removal of spider veins is likely only with the help of surgical methods of treatment.
The most common method of treating spider veins is their removal by sclerotherapy (microsclerotherapy), which consists in introducing special sclerosant products into the lumen of the vein that form the spider vein, damaging the inner layer of the vein. After the introduction of the sclerosing product, a local reaction occurs, manifested by redness, swelling of the vessels, which gradually disappears. After sclerotherapy, the patient must wear special compression underwear for some time. When squeezed with a bandage or compression stockings, the vein seems to stick together, and the spider vein disappears.
Another modern way to remove spider veins is laser coagulation of blood vessels. The laser beam is selectively absorbed by the pathological vessel that forms the spider vein and heats it up. The temperature of the vessel rises to 60-70°C, the walls of the vessel stick together, and the vessel is irreversibly damaged. The tissue surrounding the vessel absorbs little laser radiation, so it almost does not heat up and is not damaged. Thus, laser radiation selectively destroys the vessels that form the spider vein. For this, special lasers are used, called “vascular” lasers.
It should be remembered that after the removal of spider veins, their new appearance is likely. In order to prevent relapse, it will be necessary to abandon hormonal contraceptives, take venotonics and wear light compression stockings.