anthrax

Anthrax is an acute infectious disease from the group of zoonoses, characterized by fever, damage to the lymphatic apparatus, intoxication, occurs in the form of a skin, not often intestinal, pulmonary and septic form. The causative agent is an aerobic bacterium – a motionless, large-sized stick with chopped ends. Outside the body of humans and animals, it forms spores that are highly resistant to physical and chemical influences. The source of anthrax bacteria is sick or dead animals. Human infection is more often carried out by contact (when cutting animal carcasses, processing skins, etc.) and by eating foods contaminated with spores, also through water, soil, fur products, etc.

Symptoms and course of anthrax. The disease most often affects the skin, less often the internal organs.

The incubation period is from 2 to 14 days.

In the cutaneous form (carbunculosis), open areas of the body are most susceptible to damage. The disease is severe when carbuncles are located in the head, neck, mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. There are single and multiple carbuncles. First (at the site of the entrance gate of the microbe) a reddish spot appears, itchy, similar to an insect bite. During the day, the skin noticeably thickens, the itching intensifies, turning infrequently into a burning sensation, a vesicle develops in place of the spot – a bladder filled with serous contents, then with blood. Patients, when combing, tear off the bubble and an ulcer with a black bottom appears. From this point on, there is a rise in temperature, headache, loss of appetite. From the moment of opening, the edges of the ulcer begin to swell, forming an inflammatory roller, edema occurs, which begins to spread rapidly. The bottom of the ulcer sinks more and more, and “daughter” vesicles with transparent contents form along the edges. This growth of the ulcer lasts 5-6 days. By the end of the first day, the ulcer reaches a size of 8-15 mm and from that moment is called anthrax carbuncle. The peculiarity of anthrax carbuncle is the absence of pain in the area of ​​necrosis and a characteristic three-color color: black in the center (scab), within – a narrow yellowish-purulent border, then – a wide crimson shaft. Possible damage to the lymphatic system (lymphadenitis). The peculiarity of anthrax carbuncle is the absence of pain in the area of ​​necrosis and a characteristic three-color color: black in the center (scab), within – a narrow yellowish-purulent border, then – a wide crimson shaft. Possible damage to the lymphatic system (lymphadenitis). The peculiarity of anthrax carbuncle is the absence of pain in the area of ​​necrosis and a characteristic three-color color: black in the center (scab), within – a narrow yellowish-purulent border, then – a wide crimson shaft. Possible damage to the lymphatic system (lymphadenitis).

With a successful course of the disease, after 5-6 days the temperature decreases, general well-being improves, swelling decreases, lymphangitis and lymphadenitis fade away, the scab is rejected, the wound heals with the formation of a scar. With an unfavorable course, secondary sepsis develops with a repeated rise in temperature, a significant deterioration in the general condition, an increase in headache, an increase in tachycardia, and the appearance of secondary pustules on the skin. There may be bloody vomiting and diarrhea. Lethal outcome is not excluded.

In the intestinal form (alimentary anthrax sepsis), toxicosis develops from the first hours of the disease. There is a sharp weakness, abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, bloody diarrhea. The patient’s condition is progressively worsening. Secondary pustular and hemorrhagic rashes are possible on the skin. Soon anxiety, shortness of breath, cyanosis begins. Possible meningoencephalitis. Patients die from increasing heart failure in 3-4 days from the onset of the disease.

The pulmonary form of anthrax is characterized by a rapid onset: chills, a sharp increase in temperature, pain and tightness in the chest, cough with foamy sputum, rapidly increasing phenomena of general intoxication, insufficiency of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Bronchopneumonia and effusion hemorrhagic pleurisy are determined clinically and radiologically. Death begins on days 2-3 due to pulmonary edema and collapse.

The septic form proceeds very rapidly and ends in death.

Anthrax treatment. Regardless of the clinical form of the disease, treatment consists of pathogenetic and etiotropic therapy (the use of specific anti-anthrax globulin and penicillin and semi-synthetic antibiotics).

The prognosis for cutaneous forms of anthrax is favorable. Doubtful in septic cases, even with early treatment.

Prevention of anthrax . Proper organization of veterinary supervision, vaccination of pets. In case of death of animals from anthrax, animal carcasses must be burned, and food products obtained from them must be destroyed. According to epidemic indications, people are vaccinated with the STI vaccine. Persons who have been in contact with sick animals or people are subject to active medical supervision for 2 weeks.

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