Sarcoidosis (Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease)

Sarcoidosis (Besnier-Böck-Schaumann disease) is a systemic disease in which many organs and systems can be affected, characterized by the formation of granulomas in the affected tissues (this is one of the diagnostic signs of the disease, which is detected by microscopic examination. Granuloma is a limited focus of inflammation, having the shape dense nodule of various sizes).

The most commonly affected lymph nodes, lungs, liver, spleen, less often – skin, bones, organ of vision, etc.

The reasons

The cause of the disease is unknown. Sarcoidosis is not an infectious disease and is not transmitted to others.

The following etiological factors leading to the formation of granulomas are known:

    • infectious (viruses, mycobacteria, fungi, etc.);
    • plant and animal products (pollen, spores, proteins);
    • metal compounds (aluminum, beryllium);
    • inorganic dust (quartz, talc, silicone).

Most current concepts suggest that a single factor cannot be considered the cause of sarcoidosis. This is a combination of genetic, environmental, infectious and immunological causes, i.e. the disease reflects an immune inflammatory response to an etiologic agent in genetically predisposed individuals.

The disease develops more often in young and middle age, somewhat more often in women.

Main symptoms

Sarcoidosis can be asymptomatic for a long time and be detected incidentally (for example, with x-ray or fluorography of the chest during a routine examination). Weakness, low-grade fever, chest pain, dry cough, loss of appetite are sometimes noted.


      • bronchial stenosis;
      • atelectasis;
      • respiratory and heart failure;
      • complications associated with damage to other organs.


In the treatment, mainly glucocorticoid hormones are used. Considering that the disease is sometimes able to resolve itself, in some cases it is possible to confine oneself to observation without prescribing treatment.


To prevent exacerbations of sarcoidosis, you should try to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The most important thing in case of lung damage is not to smoke, as this can lead to difficulty breathing and complications of the disease. It is also necessary to avoid drugs and contact with chemicals that are harmful to the liver, with toxic volatile substances, dust, fumes, gases that can damage the lungs. In sarcoidosis, there is an increase in calcium in the blood, which can lead to the formation of kidney and bladder stones. Therefore, calcium-rich foods should be avoided. For the same reason, one should not sunbathe.

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