Rubrophytosis (rubromycosis) is the most common mycosis of the feet, affecting the skin and nails of the feet, as well as smooth skin and fluffy hair of any part of the skin, including skin folds, skin and nails of the hands.
The causative agent of rubrophytosis is Trichophyton rubrum. Once on the skin, it can exist on it for a long time without causing clinical symptoms. They provoke the disease, like all mycoses of the feet, high sweating of the legs, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders, immunological deficiency. The ways of infection are the same with epidermophytosis of the feet.
As well as epidermophytosis, rubrophytosis begins with an erased form, gradually progressing. The skin of the soles is noticeably hyperemic and thickened; the surface of the skin becomes dry, covered with floury scales; skin pattern is enhanced. From the soles, the disease spreads to the interdigital folds, fingers, lateral planes of the feet, all nails (athlete’s disease traditionally affects the nails of the 1st and 5th toes). There are no subjective symptoms.
The defeat of the nail plates (nail fungus) occurs in different types: according to the normotrophic type, hypertrophic and onycholytic.
A characteristic sign of a change in nails according to the normotrophic type is a change in their color from yellow to white, the appearance of spots and stripes on them. The thickness and structure of the nails remains unchanged; nails retain their shine. With the hypertrophic type, the nails acquire a brownish-gray color, lose their luster, become dull; they thicken and deform, partially collapse, especially on the sides. Sometimes the patient feels pain when walking.
The onycholytic type is characterized by a change in color to brownish-gray, tarnishing, atrophy of the nail and its rejection from the bed.
In addition to rubrophytosis of the feet, there are fungal infections of the hands, smooth skin, and skin folds. Rubrophytosis of the hands affects the palms and nails. Its clinical picture is characterized by the same signs as with the defeat of the feet, but less pronounced peeling, which is explained by more frequent washing. Often only one palm remains affected. The defeat of the nails on the hands occurs in the same way as the defeat of the toenails.
Diagnosis of rubrophytia is carried out on the basis of the clinical picture, the results of microscopic examination of the pathological material (skin scales, nails). Culture may be done to confirm the diagnosis.
Depends on the nature of the changes. In cases of an acute process with abundant weeping and swelling, it will first be necessary to calm the inflammatory phenomena. For this, rest, cooling lotions are prescribed, alternating them with warming compresses, for example, from Goulard’s water, Burov’s liquid (1-2 tablespoons per glass of water), 1-2% aqueous solution of silver nitrate (lapis) and 1- 2% solution of rivanol, etc. Large blisters, after preliminary disinfection with alcohol, are pierced. It is necessary to carefully and every day remove the overhanging macerated stratum corneum with scissors.
With allergic rashes – desensitizing therapy: intravenous infusions of 20% sodium hyposulfite solution; dairy-vegetarian table. It is necessary to monitor the proper function of the intestines.
As the inflammatory process subsides, pastes are prescribed: 2-3% boron-tar, sulfur-tar or boron-naftalan. At the final stage of external therapy, fungicidal solutions and ointments are used ( Undecin , Mikozolon, Mikosentin, Tsinkundan ).