Rhinophyma is a chronic disease of the skin of the nose, characterized by an increase in all its elements and disfigurement of the nose. Rhinophyma is observed more often in men 40-50 years old.
It is believed that the contributing factors are adverse environmental conditions, alcoholism and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. There is evidence in the literature that diseases that weaken immunity, endocrine diseases, chemotherapy, and autoimmune diseases can lead to its development.
It is also believed that rhinophyma is the 30% stage of red acne.
Rhinophyma develops slowly over many years, but then can progress rapidly. There are fibro-angioectatic and glandular (lumpy) forms of rhinophyma.
With the fibrous-angioectatic form of rhinophyma, due to the increase in all elements of the skin, the nose evenly increases in volume, but does not lose its configuration. In connection with the development of blood vessels, the skin of the nose becomes bright red.
In the glandular form of rhinophyma, in the region of the apex and wings of the nose, three tuberous tuberous nodes are formed, sitting on a wide base, which later merge. Skin growths sometimes reach enormous sizes, hang down, close the nostrils and mouth, making it difficult to breathe, eat and disfigure the face. The nodes are traditionally soft in texture, with a shiny sebaceous surface and a large number of dilated vessels and sebaceous glands, from the mouths of which, when pressed, foul-smelling sebum is released.
The color of the nodes varies from normal skin to waxy-purple. The cartilages of the nose are traditionally not changed, but in some cases thickening or (more often) thinning of the cartilages is possible.
Diagnosis of rhinophyma is carried out differentially with the diagnosis of reticulosarcomatosis, leprosy (leprosy). On examination, it is found: cystic expansion of the sebaceous glands and their hyperplasia, nodes consist of overgrown connective tissue, blood and lymphatic vessels are dilated, their number is increased, their walls are also thickened.
Treatment is only surgical with the use of various options for removing rhinophyma.