Disorders of the menstrual function

Ovarian dysfunction is a general concept, which is understood as a violation of the hormonal function of the ovaries. This pathology is manifested either by a delay in menstruation for more than 35 days with subsequent bleeding lasting more than 7 days, or by irregular frequent menstruation following one after another at different intervals (less than 21 days). Such bleeding is called dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Many women who experience irregular menstruation do not immediately realize that their health is in danger. Often they believe that a slight delay in menstruation or, conversely, frequent menstruation, an irregular menstrual cycle is an individual feature of their body. However, the normal menstrual cycle has strict parameters: the duration of menstruation is 3-7 days; the interval between menstruation is 21-35 days; blood loss during menstruation 50-100 ml.

It is important to know that any deviation from this norm is a sign of ovarian dysfunction. The reproductive system functions normally only if the condition of the health of the whole organism is observed. The first thing that is disturbed in women in the presence of serious diseases is menstrual and childbearing functions. Therefore, ovarian dysfunction is most often a signal of an incipient disease. If you do not pay attention to this in time, then a slight violation of the menstrual cycle can turn into serious consequences.

The reasons for this violation are quite diverse:

  • internal damage in the ovary itself (congenital and acquired);
  • concomitant endocrine diseases (thyroid gland, adrenal glands, etc.). These hormonal disorders can be acquired and congenital (the predisposition is inherited);
  • inflammatory processes of the internal genital organs – the uterus, appendages – with menstrual dysfunction;
  • stress, neuroses;
  • diseases of the genital organs (adenomyosis, ovarian tumors, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, cancer of the cervix, uterine body);
  • violation of the location of the intrauterine device, termination of pregnancy (medical abortion, spontaneous miscarriage);
  • the influence of a number of natural and physical factors (climate change, excessive solar radiation, radiation damage);
  • treatment with certain medicinal products.

The basis of the occurrence of dysfunctional uterine bleeding is always a violation of the formation and secretion of hormones that regulate the hormonal function of the ovaries. These hormones are produced by the pituitary gland and are called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL).

Each phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by a specific ratio of these hormones. This will be a condition for the maturation of the follicle, ovulation and pregnancy. In violation of the hormonal function of the ovaries, this ratio changes. With the initial manifestations of ovarian dysfunction, the process of ovulation is most often disrupted – it does not start. This disorder is called anovulation. Therefore, uterine bleeding in ovarian dysfunction is acyclic, i.e. the menstrual cycle is not respected and does not go through all its phases.

Clinically manifested by various disorders of the menstrual cycle: by the type of irregular rhythm of menstruation; increase (decrease) in menstrual blood loss; the appearance of unplanned bleeding from the genital tract; abdominal pain in premenstrual, menstrual days, in the middle of the cycle; violation of the maturation of the egg – infertility, miscarriage.

In addition to uterine bleeding, women with ovarian dysfunction may experience pain in the lower abdomen before or during bleeding, most often of a pulling nature. However, sometimes the pain is acute, spreads throughout the abdomen, radiates to the lower back. With ovarian dysfunction, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is often very pronounced: lethargy, apathy, tearfulness, or, conversely, irritability. If the bleeding is profuse and prolonged, then these symptoms are accompanied by signs of anemia – a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells in the blood – pallor of the skin and visible mucous membranes appears, the heart rate increases, headache, dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, decreased appetite.

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding stops on its own after an indefinite time, but often resumes without proper treatment. Acyclic uterine bleeding can be frequent (with an interval of less than 21 days), rare (with an interval of more than 35 days), blood loss in them may be more than normal (over 100 ml). But in the future, amenorrhea almost always develops – i.e. menstruation is absent for 3-6 months or more. With ovarian dysfunction in childbearing age, the content of estrogens in the body is almost always increased. This is a risk factor for the development of diseases such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, malignant tumors of the mammary glands, mastopathy.

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