Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Its conductors are affected, more precisely, their shell. As a result, the conduction of impulses within the central nervous system becomes incredible. This leads to the fact that the basic functions of a person are violated – movement, coordination, susceptibility, vision.
Multiple sclerosis affects mainly young people and middle-aged people. Unfortunately, in recent years there has been an increase in this disease throughout the world. Ukraine is no exception, the prevalence of the disease is also increasing in our country.
And the fact that the incidence is increasing precisely among the young, able-bodied population creates a problem for any civilized country, including ours.
A person should consult a doctor if, for example, his vision worsens (an anomaly is observed in one eye). In such cases, ophthalmologists refer patients to a neurologist for further examination.
There may also be a feeling of numbness or loss of sensation in a limb or on the face. If this violation is prolonged – at least a week – you will also need to see a doctor and undergo appropriate examinations.
In some patients, the onset of the disease may manifest differently. For example, dizziness occurs, vision becomes fuzzy – everything seems to be jumping before the eyes. This may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Such signs are also a signal in order to undergo an examination.
Some patients note increased fatigue of the limbs, more often the legs. They complain that after a short run or other small physical activity, they have a desire to sit down and rest. This may also indicate trouble in the central nervous system and requires a special examination.
To date, it is believed that the disease develops with a combination of three main factors: viral, genetic (genetic predisposition) and geographical. There are certain regions of the globe where multiple sclerosis is most common. Unfortunately, Ukraine is one of them. Especially the western regions of the country.
Today we can talk about the so-called primary and secondary prevention. This is due to the fact that in our time the probability of diagnosing multiple sclerosis has reached a very high level.
Back in the 1970s and 1980s, doctors could only observe patients, assess the development and course of the disease. And on the basis of this, they gradually became convinced that it was really multiple sclerosis.
Now there are methods that allow you to look inside the central nervous system, to see what is happening with the brain and spinal cord. These are the so-called neuroimaging techniques. First of all, these include all sorts of options for magnetic resonance imaging.
Thanks to this method, there was practically a revolution. It became possible to see the changes that are present in the brain and spinal cord – the lesions that form in multiple sclerosis – even before the full clinical picture of the disease becomes apparent.
Therefore, now, if the patient is concerned about one of the known symptoms of multiple sclerosis, the doctor directs him to magnetic resonance imaging. If lesions of the nervous system are found, doctors classify the patient as a risk group. In this case, primary preventive measures are taken.
First of all, doctors advise such patients to lead a healthy lifestyle. This includes the alternation and normal distribution of loads (primarily on the nervous system) and rest. It is necessary to exclude toxic effects on the nervous system – alcohol, smoking. Sleep deprivation and overload, both physical and mental, should be avoided. Overheating in the sun also worsens the course of the disease. In some cases, we recommend certain exercises. This allows you to delay in time, and probably prevent the development of a vivid clinical picture of multiple sclerosis.
But if the patient already has this diagnosis, then secondary prevention should be carried out. It consists mainly in preventing exacerbations of the disease. That is, the task is to keep the patient in remission as long as possible.
For this purpose, products of preventive therapy – immunomodulators are used. They prevent the active development of the process.