Radiculitis (radicular syndrome) is a disease of the human peripheral nervous system that occurs as a result of compression of the roots of the spinal cord, or nerve trunks at any level. Radicular syndrome is manifested by sharp, burning pains in the neck, upper and lower extremities, chest, lower back, groin and abdomen.
Depending on the location of the lesion of the roots, there are:
- upper cervical sciatica;
- cervicobrachial sciatica;
- chest sciatica;
- sciatica, which may be acute or chronic in manifestation.
With cervical sciatica , pain is localized in the back of the head, neck, aggravated by turning the head, coughing. There is a protective reflex posture of the head with an inclination back. With cervical radiculitis due to osteochondrosis, spondylosis, etc. radicular pain can be combined with dizziness, hearing loss, staggering when walking, and other signs of insufficient blood supply to the brain.
With cervico-shoulder sciatica , intense pain, often of a shooting nature, is localized in the neck, shoulder girdle, in the hands, sharply increases with hand movements, also with coughing, turning and tilting the head.
Lumbosacral sciatica (damage to the lumbar and sacral roots) is the most common. The disease in many cases occurs on the basis of degenerative processes in the intervertebral discs, ligaments, joints of the spine (osteochondrosis, disc herniation, etc.), tends to be chronic with relapses. Pains of a diverse nature are localized in the lumbosacral region, along the sciatic nerve, aggravated by movement, walking, torso.
The localization and severity of pain depends on the level at which the root or nerve trunk was compressed, as well as on the nature of the tissue that caused the compression. The most pronounced pain syndrome is observed when squeezed by bone outgrowths, discs and other dense tissues, for example, an intervertebral hernia. When squeezed by softer tissues – muscles and ligaments, pain and the dynamics of its increase are less pronounced.