Belching is the involuntary or arbitrary discharge of gases from the esophagus or stomach through the mouth as a result of diaphragmatic contraction. If, with all this, the contents of the stomach enter the esophagus, then they talk about regurgitation.
Usually gas from the stomach in small portions passes unnoticed through the mouth or through the intestines. With excessive swallowing of air or increased formation of gas in the stomach, intragastric pressure increases, the stomach muscles contract, the sphincter (flap) between the stomach and esophagus is simultaneously relaxed and the sphincter between the stomach and duodenum is compressed, which causes belching.
Types of belching
Belching is empty (air), food, bitter, sour, rotten, also loud and quiet. Sour eructation is observed with increased acidity, bitter – with the reflux of bile into the stomach. Putrid belching – with stagnation and putrefactive fermentation in the stomach (pyloric stenosis). Not often rotten belching is one of the early symptoms of exacerbation of chronic atrophic (hyposecretory) gastritis. A little later, heaviness and aching pains in the pit of the stomach, a feeling of fullness after eating, nausea, and regurgitation join.
Belching food, in which small portions of liquid gastric contents enter the oral cavity along with gas, can be sour, bitter or putrid. Sour belching is traditionally observed in peptic ulcer disease and is caused by increased acidity of gastric contents due to hypersecretion of gastric juice or fermentation in the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. Bitter belching is noted as a result of throwing bile into the stomach, putrefactive – with a long stagnation in the stomach and putrefactive decomposition of its contents.
Causes of belching
In healthy people, belching does not happen often. Frequent belching is not often a sign of diseases of the stomach, liver, gallbladder, intestines. Belching can be a leading symptom in diseases and conditions accompanied by violations of the cardiac sphincter closure mechanism located between the stomach and esophagus. Such a condition can occur, for example, with diaphragmatic hernias or after operations on the gastrointestinal tract.
Belching can be a sign of gastric neurosis (aerophagia), in which case it is traditionally loud. Belching can also occur reflexively in diseases of the abdominal organs, for example, the liver, gallbladder, as well as in cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, etc.). But most often belching occurs with diseases of the stomach and 12 – duodenal ulcer.
Constant belching requires, first of all, an examination of the sick person to identify the causes of its occurrence. Treating belching by itself does not make sense. Against the background of the treatment of the underlying disease, the patient must follow a diet: do not consume carbonated drinks and foods that linger in the stomach for a long time (beans, peas, etc.). Food is recommended to be taken often and in small portions.
With increased secretion of gastric juice (if it caused belching), alkalizing medicinal products (alkaline mineral water, baking soda, magnesia, etc.) are taken.
In order to eliminate belching, the underlying disease is treated. In all cases, carbonated drinks and foods that promote gas formation or linger in the stomach for a long time are excluded from the diet. Food is recommended to take often, in small portions. With hypersecretion of gastric juice, antacid products are prescribed.
- food should be chewed slowly and thoroughly;
- with nervous belching before eating, take an infusion of valerian roots, do some physical exercises (this relieves stress);
- you will need to give up carbonated drinks and chewing gum; chewing gum contributes to the accumulation of saliva, which is then swallowed along with air;
- do not eat foods that contain a lot of air (for example, whipped cocktails)