Osteomyelitis of the jaw

Osteomyelitis of the jaw is an inflammation of the bone tissue and bone marrow. Inflammation traditionally develops due to the penetration of infection into the bone tissue. Osteomyelitis of the jaw in terms of prevalence occupies approximately 30% of all osteomyelitis.

Depending on the source of infection, odontogenic (the source is a bad tooth), hematogenous (infection with blood flow from any organ) and traumatic (including gunshot) osteomyelitis of the jaw are distinguished.

The reasons

There are several causes of osteomyelitis of the jaw, but two-thirds of the cases is the penetration of infection into the bone through a damaged tooth.

An infection in the jaw can get in three ways:

  • in the absolute bulk (75%) through a diseased tooth (a complication of periodontitis);
  • through the blood (for chronic infections, for example, chronic tonsillitis; for acute infections, for example, scarlet fever, diphtheria);
  • with a jaw injury (fractures, wounds).


Acute osteomyelitis is manifested by general signs and local.

General signs of poisoning: malaise, headache, weakness, poor sleep, an increase in body temperature up to 38 ° C and above.

As well as:

  • pain in the area of ​​the infected tooth, which increases sharply when biting or tapping;
  • the causative tooth and its neighbors become mobile;
  • mucous reddened, swollen and also hurts;
  • lymph nodes in the neck are enlarged and painful on palpation.


The blood test showed signs of inflammation. In subacute osteomyelitis, a fistula appears, an outflow of inflammatory fluid and pus is created, and it becomes easier – the inflammation seems to be dulled, but bone destruction continues. On an x-ray, you can see the rejection of dead areas of the bone (sequesters).


Removal of affected teeth and small sequesters through fistulous passages, with the delimitation of large sequesters – sequestrotomy. Immunomodulating products. With the threat of a pathological fracture – splinting.

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