ORZ. Acute respiratory diseases (acute catarrhs of the respiratory tract). A very common disease with a primary lesion of the respiratory tract. Caused by various etiological agents (viruses, mycoplasmas, bacteria). Immunity in the aftermath of past diseases is strictly type-specific, for example, to the influenza virus, parainfluenza, herpes simplex, rhinovirus. Therefore, the same person can get sick with acute respiratory disease up to 5-7 times during the year. The source of infection is a person with clinically expressed or erased forms of acute respiratory disease. Healthy virus carriers are of less importance. Transmission of infection occurs predominantly by airborne droplets. Diseases occur in the form of isolated cases and epidemic outbreaks.
Symptoms and course of ARI. ARI is characterized by relatively mild symptoms of general intoxication, a predominant lesion of the upper respiratory tract and a benign course. The defeat of the respiratory system manifests itself in the form of rhinitis, nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheolaryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. Some etiological agents, in addition to these manifestations, also cause a number of other symptoms: conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis in adenovirus diseases, moderately pronounced signs of herpetic sore throat in enterovirus diseases, rubella-like eczema in adenovirus and enterovirus diseases, false croup syndrome in adenovirus and parainfluenza infections. The duration of the disease in the absence of pneumonia is from 2-3 to 5-8 days. In pneumonia, which is often caused by mycoplasmas,
ARI recognition. The main method is clinical. They make a diagnosis: acute respiratory disease (ARI) and give its interpretation (rhinitis, nasopharyngitis, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, etc.). The etiological diagnosis is made only after laboratory confirmation.
Treatment of ARI . Antibiotics and other chemotherapy products are ineffective because they do not work on the virus. Antibiotics can be prescribed for acute bacterial respiratory infections. Treatment is most often done at home. During the febrile period, bed rest is recommended. Assign symptomatic drugs, antipyretics, etc.
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