The thyroid gland is the largest of all endocrine organs in an adult. It consists of 2 lobes and an isthmus. The thyroid gland has an external and an internal capsule. The outer capsule covers the gland along with the larynx, the inner one fuses very tightly with its parenchyma, i.e. covers the gland itself. Between the capsules there is a slit-like space in which numerous blood vessels pass.
The main function of the thyroid gland is the secretion of a specific hormone. The thyroid hormones are thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The general action of these hormones is the stimulation of all types of metabolism.
According to the WHO, in recent years, the incidence of thyroid cancer in the world has doubled, mainly due to the incidence of young and middle-aged people. One of the main issues in oncology is the question of the relationship between thyroid cancer and background processes. Also, the increase in the incidence is due not only to its true increase, but also to better diagnosis, thanks to the improvement of diagnostic methods in recent years. But, the main cause of thyroid hyperplasia is still iodine deficiency in the body.
The development of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland is preceded by nodular goiter, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid parenchyma of a reversible and irreversible nature, nodular hyperplasia, and adenomas.
According to clinical and morphological characteristics, thyroid tumors are divided into:
- epithelial tumors (A-cell (follicular cell) cancer – most common (papillary adenocarcinoma, follicular adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated cancer); B-cell (Ashkenazi) cancer – extremely rare; C-cell cancer – medullary thyroid cancer glands, squamous cell carcinoma);
- non-epithelial tumors.
Benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland in the bulk of cases are asymptomatic. This leads to late diagnosis, which in turn worsens the results of treatment.
The choice of treatment for thyroid cancer depends on many factors: the prevalence of the process, the histological structure of the tumor, the age of the patients, gender, etc.
The leading method in the treatment of thyroid cancer is surgery. Additional methods are: remote radiation therapy, radioiodine ablation, suppressive therapy, drug treatment.