Both benign and malignant bladder tumors account for 4 percent of all tumors in general. The question of the causes of bladder tumors is still not completely clarified. Bladder tumors are known to occur infrequently in people employed in the production of aniline dyes. However, the majority of patients do not have contact with substances formed in the aniline dye manufacturing cycle before the disease. The disease is also promoted by smoking, the abuse of phenacetin, and treatment with cyclophosphamide.
It is known that in people with bladder cancer, there are much more endogenous carcinogens in the urine – carcinogens that are formed in the human body. These carcinogens include degradation products of certain amino acids. There is a link between the parasitic disease schistosomiasis and cancer. This disease occurs most often in Africa and the Middle East. Bladder tumors are more common in men.
There are tumors arising from the most superficial layer of the wall – from the epithelium, as well as tumors arising from other tissues, in particular from the connective (fibromas, fibromyxomas, hemangiomas, leiomyomas, etc.). Tumors are divided into benign and malignant. The former include adenomas, endometriosis tumors, pheochromocytomas. Conventionally, this group includes papillomas. The latter do not often behave like the initial stages of cancer. Malignant tumors include cancer and sarcomas. The most common is transitional cell carcinoma.
The most common symptom of bladder tumors is the excretion of blood in the urine (hematuria). Usually there is blood for no apparent reason, against the background of normal health. Hematuria can last for several hours, after which it can stop, and then reappear. Sometimes, the amount of blood lost is not large and hematuria is determined only by a clinical urine test. Unfortunately, the appearance of blood in the urine may already be a sign of an advanced tumor.
Growing into the wall of the bladder, cancer causes a violation of the activity of this organ, which is manifested by the appearance of pain during urination or constantly. Increased pain at the end of urination. With advanced cancer, the pain is constant, painful, radiating to the perineum, pubic area, anus, in men – to the scrotum. With the collapse of the tumor, an infection joins, which causes the phenomena of cystitis.
The tumor can block the entrance of the ureter into the bladder. As a result of this, there is a violation of the outflow of urine, expansion of the ureters, renal pelvis. Pyelonephritis may develop, and with a long course – hydronephrosis and shutdown of kidney function.
Bladder cancer spreads through the lymphatic and blood vessels to other organs, causing damage to them.
The main method for diagnosing bladder tumors, including cancer, is cystoscopy – an endoscopic examination. A thin metal tube is inserted through the urethra, through which the bladder is examined. A urine sediment study is also carried out, in which cancer cells can be detected. Examination of the tumor before surgery is carried out using a special cystoscope. During the study, a piece of tissue is taken.
X-ray studies are of great importance in the diagnosis. Contrast agents are injected intravenously, after which pictures of the bladder are taken, which can determine the tumor. Contrast agents can also be administered through the urethra.
The main treatment for bladder tumors, including cancer, is surgery. As additional methods, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used. Small benign tumors are removed using endoscopic techniques. If such a removal is improbable, operations are performed through incisions in the suprapubic region. Removal of all or part of the bladder is performed for cancer. With complete removal of the bladder, the ureters are sutured into the anterior abdominal wall. With the help of special bags attached to the places where the ureters exit, care is carried out.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy can improve the results of surgical treatment, and with advanced tumors, sometimes they can stabilize the condition.
Articles from the forum on the topic ” Bladder Tumor “
The dog, breed Bernese Mountain Dog, has a tumor in the bladder, 5×3 with a leg of 2 cm, is the operation required?
No, you are not obligatory at all! Why should a dog live?!
Since I work and study as a veterinarian, do not hesitate, this is your friend and you have taken the responsibility to educate!