Drug addiction is the dependence of a person on substances that affect his psyche. Drug addiction has been known for a long time. A certain role in the development of drug addiction is played by immaturity of character, weak self-control, increased interest in unfamiliar sensations. The bulk of drug addicts are those who consume drugs for other than medical reasons. Initially, depending on the type of higher nervous activity, the type of drug, the dose, the method of its introduction into the body, the mental attitude of the subject, a euphoric effect is caused. A desire to take a certain type of drug is formed. They are being taken regularly.
Then the reactivity of the organism changes – protective reactions disappear. The consumption of the drug becomes systematic, there is a change in tolerance. Drug addicts take 2-10 times higher doses than it is customary to use them for medicinal purposes. Gradually, a mental dependence on a drug is formed. Further, physical dependence is developed with an irresistible attraction to taking the drug and a pronounced withdrawal syndrome, in the structure of which elements of astheno-depressive, hypomanic, explosive elements can be observed. In persons suffering from drug addiction, there is a change in tolerance, the appearance of mental and physical dependence with a pronounced withdrawal syndrome. In the dynamics of the formation of this syndrome, it is conditionally possible to distinguish three stages (stages):
- adaptation (change in the reactivity of the body, the appearance of mental dependence);
- the occurrence of physical dependence in the form of withdrawal symptoms;
- depletion of all systems (reduced tolerance, prolonged withdrawal symptoms, the occurrence in some cases of polydrug addiction).
Opiate addictions, known to mankind since ancient times, are widespread in the modern world. Opium and its products (opiopon, peregoric, laudonone, pectol, opionone), alkaloids and opium derivatives (morphine, thebaine, codeine, heroin, or otherwise – diacetyl morphine, dionine, apalaverine, narcoten, tekodin) can have a narcotic effect.
Opium and its derivatives are used in a variety of ways: smoking, ingestion, intravenous and subcutaneous injections.
Hashish and similar substances are obtained from the leaves, shoots and pollen of Indian, American, Chui and other types of hemp. There are many synonyms for hashish, used, as a rule, in those areas and states where hemp grows: anasha, marijuana, bang, huss, haras, dagga, etc. The main ways of using the drug: chewing leaves and shoots, smoking, ingestion.
Cocaine is a narcotic and tonic effect of coca leaves. Cocaine is sniffed, smoked, ingested. Cocaine addiction and dependence begins extremely quickly – sometimes after several days after the start of its regular use.
Drugs and other psychoactive substances, if consumed for non-medical purposes for a short time, can lead to the development of drug addiction – syndromes of mental and physical dependence on drugs. The intensity of the development of the addiction syndrome is largely determined by how intense the state of euphoria was, caused by the first few doses of a particular psychoactive substance. The psychophysiological properties of the patient’s personality can further lead to an unconscious desire to experience euphoria again, and this, in turn, under certain circumstances, can lead a person to the path of drug addiction.
In the same way, drug addiction develops if the first doses of the drug were taken out of imitation of friends and acquaintances, or in a situation where a person deliberately uses the drug in order to relieve a depressive state, knowing from rumors or from the literature that drugs have a similar effect. The main danger is that in case of accidental drug use, the future drug addict is usually sure that he can stop using it at any time on his own. This can happen if the person’s will is strong, and the drug was taken randomly and not many times.
However, in the vast majority of cases, the experienced state of euphoria and pleasure leads to repeated use of the narcotic substance, and then the state of mental dependence creeps up quite imperceptibly. There are three stages in the development of almost all drug addictions.
The first stage of drug addiction – the stage of mental attraction to the drug – is characterized not only by the emergence of a syndrome of mental dependence on the product, but also by a decrease in its euphoric effect with repeated doses. For a novice drug addict, in order to recreate the former vivid euphoric sensations, it becomes necessary to gradually increase the dose of the drug. At the same time, in the intervals between taking the drug, the patient experiences a feeling of dissatisfaction, discomfort, and his working capacity decreases.
Taking the product in a slightly higher dose completely removes these sensations. As a result, all the thoughts and aspirations of the sick person are directed towards one goal – getting more and more new doses of the product. The first stage of drug addiction (depending on their type) lasts for a relatively short time – from 2 to 6 months.
Further drug use leads toto the development of the second stage of drug addictionduring which the syndrome of physical dependence on the drug is formed. During the second stage of drug addiction, the patient’s body adapts to the drug, and as a result, stopping the drug causes a variety of functional disorders that characterize the withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal syndrome is a complex set of psychovegetative disorders. For him, changes in the mental state of the sick person are typical – the appearance of prolonged states of discomfort, anxiety, dissatisfaction, certain vegetative shifts. Patients develop high secretion of mucous membranes, runny nose, sneezing, lacrimation, there is an intermittent feeling of heat and chills. There are muscle pains, periodic spasms of the muscles of the legs. Appetite is sharply reduced. Vomiting, tenesmus, diarrhea, pain in the stomach and intestines may occur.
The acute period of abstinence lasts up to 4-5 weeks and gradually (in case of abstinence from taking the drug) the patient returns to normal. However, residual withdrawal symptoms may persist for several months. The development of abstinence in the event that drug treatment is not started during the first or at the beginning of the second stage of the disease serves as the basis for the patient to continue to use the drug in ever increasing quantities. At this stage of drug addiction, tolerance to the drug is growing rapidly, and the daily dose of the drug, for example, morphine, can reach 40-50 ml of a 1% solution. At the same time, taking the drug, even in such quantities, no longer causes acute euphoria, which the patient experiences at the first stage of the disease, but only serves to get rid of withdrawal symptoms.
At the 30% stage of the disease , somatic pathology develops, significant changes in the psyche of the patient occur. Increasing dyspeptic disorders, complete lack of appetite, regularly repeated vomiting, chronic diarrhea lead to a sharp, and in some cases cachexic weight loss. Patients at this stage of the disease are apathetic, weak, they have low blood pressure, slow pulse, impaired coordination of movements, gait shaky, stumbling. The appearance of the sick is characteristic: due to exhaustion, dry skin, advanced caries, brittle hair and nails, middle-aged and young patients look like deep old people.
Mental disorders cause the development of asthenia and anergy. Tolerance to the drug during this period is reduced, so its use becomes less regular, and slightly lower doses are required to prevent withdrawal than in the second stage of the disease. Throughout the entire 30% stage of the disease, the introduction of the drug does not cause a euphoric state and the need for the product is due only to the need to avoid withdrawal. At the final stages of drug addiction, disorders of the digestive and cardiovascular systems increase, toxic myocardiopathy may develop, and exhaustion increases. Deaths, as a rule, are associated with total degeneration of the heart muscle, nephropathy, and associated infection.
Addictions caused by the consumption of homemade cannabis products
This group of drugs includes derivatives of various cannabis collections (tranquilizers – “fiction”) – marijuana, marijuana, hashish, bang, kief, huss, plan, hares, dagga, etc. The active principle is the aromatic aldehyde cannabiol contained in the hemp extract, from concentration on which the state of intoxication depends.
They use marijuana in different ways – chew, smoke, in drinks. In our country smoking marijuana prevails. The action of marijuana is manifested in 15-20 minutes. Not often, the first samples not only do not give pleasant sensations, but, on the contrary, cause a feeling of nausea, bitterness in the mouth, salivation, and slight dizziness. Despite this, smokers continue to smoke, and these unpleasant sensations pass. As a rule, the action of hashish begins with some physical sensations – thirst, hunger, some dryness of the mucous membranes. Then there is a feeling of nausea, which spreads throughout the body. A state of lightness, weightlessness is growing. There is a desire to scream, dance, take curly poses, laugh a lot.
The slightest movement, the posture of a smoker causes repeated uncontrollable fits of laughter. Attention is distracted, associations appear easily, without dwelling on one object or phenomenon for a long time. The pace of thinking accelerates, there are many thoughts, they flow in succession, quickly replacing each other, flowing one on top of the other. Speech pressure is revealed – there are a lot of words, phrases are built infrequently without an ending, they do not express clear thoughts. The smoker loses contact with others, it seems strange to him that they do not share his fun, irritability and malice appear. There are sharp emotional fluctuations: sometimes anger, sometimes viciousness, sometimes high spirits with gaiety, reaching exaltation. Against this background, fantasies and illusions are revealed. The surrounding world “acquires” bright colors, the sounds “become” loud, booming, sometimes “acquiring” the sound of “echo”.
The described states characterize 1 dose of stupefying with hashish – the stage of excitation. It is followed by 2 dose – the stage of oppression. There is a change in the surrounding world, when the colors fade, illusions disappear, fantasies go out, the flow of thoughts is sharply slowed down. Then fears, fragmentary delusional ideas of persecution are revealed, the mood deteriorates sharply. This condition is accompanied by vegetative crises.
The symptoms of intoxication with hashish depend on the amount of the drug used, the frequency of its intake, the individual characteristics of the higher nervous activity of the individual. With non-cordial intoxication, a state of mild euphoria is observed, moderate severity is characterized by more pronounced symptoms with fantasies, illusions, and a state of mild motor arousal. Finally, acute intoxication lasts from 1 to 3 hours and ends with heavy sleep or weakness, apathy.
With further abuse of hashish, the picture of intoxication changes. Some develop psychoses with a pronounced impairment of consciousness, with visual and auditory hallucinations, delusional ideas of persecution, relationships, and sometimes sharp motor excitement. Others (more often) have disturbances in the emotional-volitional sphere, leading to psychopathization of the personality or even to schizophrenia-like symptoms.
During the period of formation of signs foreshadowing the emergence of drug addiction, hashish consumption is episodic, sometimes smoking causes nausea, even vague fear, but in an environment of group and mutual induction, these sensations gradually become dulled. Taking the drug leads to pleasure, and abstinence brings a feeling of dissatisfaction. There are no mental changes yet, but an affective attraction arises that distorts the normal course of thinking and changes the previous life attitudes.
At the initial (I) stage, hashish consumption becomes regular, unpleasant sensations disappear, and the number of cigarettes smoked increases. In the syndrome of mental dependence, an obsessive desire for drug euphoria is noted. Intoxication becomes the only state of dissatisfaction.
Physical dependence is just beginning to form, but mental changes are already visible in the form of a narrowing of the circle of interests, a decrease in volitional activity, and the appearance of neurosis-like disorders.
In the chronic (II) stage of drug addiction, resistance is maintained at the same level with the systematic consumption of hashish. There is a pronounced mental dependence in the form of a permanent syndrome of obsession. In physical dependence, the withdrawal syndrome is expressed in the form of a somatovegetative component. Only while intoxicated does the addict experience optimal physical comfort and performance. Drug addiction is compulsive. Mental disorders are expressed in psychopathization of the personality, a decrease in intelligence, and a lack of interest in the environment. Acute psychosis may occur. The pathology of somatoneurological spheres joins: myocardial dystrophy, nonspecific hepatitis, liver failure. There may also be muscle weakness, deterioration in coordination of movements.
In the late (III) stage, the amount of hashish consumed decreases; the body’s resistance drops. Mental dependence gives way to growing physical dependence. Withdrawal syndrome becomes protracted, severe. In the foreground – severe asthenia with hypochondria. Repeated use of hashish is only for a short time and does not completely alleviate the severity of withdrawal.
The somatoneurological condition worsens, general physical exhaustion increases, the skin becomes flabby, earthy-gray in color, hair loss, fragility of bones and teeth are noted, somatic and neurological diseases diagnosed at the chronic stage progress, damage to the retina and optic nerves is possible. Psychoses caused by the use of hashish are quite diverse, they can occur with a single use of the drug and are expressed by an acute disturbance of consciousness, fears, hyperesthesia. So, with an overdose of hashish, psychosis manifests itself in the form of a twilight disorder of consciousness, hallucinatory confusion, and sometimes the appearance of illusions. Patients are excited, try to run somewhere, are aggressive. Affect ranges from minimal to depressive, sometimes with elements of fear. It is difficult to establish contact with the patient,
Psychosis can develop at the height of the withdrawal syndrome, for 2-3 days, most often it is a twilight disorder of consciousness.
Senestopathic complaints, dysmorphopsia, hallucinations with a sense of space change are constant in the picture of psychosis. The exit from psychosis is gradual, on the 6-7th day, through severe asthenia with hypochondriacal inclusions and obsessions. An overdose of hashish can also cause epileptiform seizures. With prolonged use of hashish, psychoses can also occur. Leading in them are manic, hallucinatory, hypochondriacal syndromes. In addition, significant fluctuations of affect can be traced in their structure, as well as periodic disturbances of consciousness. Psychosis can provoke the onset of the schizophrenic process.
This group of drugs includes opium and its products: omnopon (pantopon), nectol, also within 20 alkaloids and derivatives of opium (morphine, codeine, thebaine, heroin, dionine, etc.), synthetic products with a morphine-like effect (phenalon, promedol and etc.).
The lethal dose of a pure substance is 0.3–0.5 g. Drug addicts quickly begin to increase the dose, stimulated by the development of tolerance to the product. Therefore, you can meet cases when the patient uses doses that are 10 times higher than those given above. Acute poisoning is characterized by euphoria, reaching a pronounced excitation. At the same time, dry mouth, feeling of heat, severe weakness, tinnitus, headache, sweating, increased urination are detected. Cardiovascular activity is disturbed, shortness of breath appears. Consciousness is changed. With an unfavorable course, bloody diarrhea, convulsions appear, paralysis of the respiratory center may develop. Skin phenomena are not often noted – severe itching, rash, the face becomes purple-red, drowsiness or deep sleep begins. With chronic drug use, euphoria, a feeling of bliss, and sometimes illusions are observed. Soon after several puffs, opiomaniacs plunge into a world of dreams and bizarre experiences, boundless contentment. After 30-40 minutes, drowsiness and drowsiness come.
Addiction to morphine products occurs relatively quickly. Opium is taken by mouth, subcutaneously, intravenously, or smoked. Codeine is used orally, morphine, promedol – subcutaneously, intravenously. In the absence of a substance in its pure form, drug addicts often use all kinds of medical products containing opium – stomach drops, etc. They often inject the drug with a non-sterile syringe, dilute the product in raw water, and inject it into all accessible parts of the body. During the period of formation of precursors of opium (morphine) addiction, drug use is unsystematic, tolerance grows rapidly. Mental dependence or primary pathological attraction is formed on the basis of a specific euphoria, in the form of an obsessive syndrome.
At the initial (I) stage of the disease state, tolerance continues to grow rapidly, drug use becomes systematic, and there may be no euphoria. Mental dependence is expressed in a vivid syndrome of obsession with the desire to obtain satisfaction or relieve mental discomfort. Physical dependence is formed. At this stage, a feeling of dissatisfaction with life appears, working capacity decreases. There are no mental changes yet, but drug use is becoming the main life interest.
In the chronic (II) stage, tolerance is established at the same level (tolerance plateau), an individual rhythm of drug consumption is developed, a feeling of euphoria does not appear often. The drug does not cause relaxation, but stimulation (perverted action). Psychological dependence is clearly expressed and is an irresistible attraction, and the drug is taken to stimulate and improve well-being. Withdrawal syndrome is formed with a pronounced somatovegetative component. Withdrawal from morphine addiction begins several hours after taking the last dose of the drug. A variety of somatovegetative, psychoneurological symptoms are noted: yawning, sweating, lacrimation, diarrhea, chills, dilated pupils, nausea, vomiting, hot flashes, high fever, increased respiration, spasms of the muscles of the larynx, abdomen and other groups, pain in them, dehydration and weight loss. There is an alarming state, anxiety, an unaccountable fear of death, which comes in waves. Sleep is disturbed, often accompanied by nightmares. The mood is changeable: either a slight euphoria with an overestimation of one’s own personality and one’s probabilities, or a lowering of mood with depression, or irritability, anger with apathy and aggression. The acute, most severe withdrawal period is 7–10 days. However, then for 1–1.5 months. severe asthenia, depression, somatovegetative disorders, decrease in work probability last. There are short-term psychoses with a change in the state of consciousness. There may be Korsakov’s amnestic syndrome, convulsive seizures. Mental disorders become noticeable and are expressed in psychopathization with dysphoria and deceit. A decrease in the moral and ethical qualities of a person, emotional devastation, loss of work probability is revealed. Neurological changes are mainly expressed in the form of autonomic disorders (narrowing of the pupils, dry mouth, stool retention, fluctuations in blood pressure, etc.).
At the late stage of opium addiction, all syndromes of the disease state become more complicated and aggravated. Tolerance falls, with all this, disruptions occur in the rhythm of taking the drug, especially during periods of somatic distress. However, when the condition improves, drug use resumes. Euphoria is practically not observed, the stimulating effect of the drug is reduced. Mental dependence is partially satisfied by improving the mental state and some rise (stimulation) of intellectual and physical processes.
Physical dependence is severe. In the withdrawal syndrome in a more acute form, all the symptoms of the chronic (II) stage appear. Asthenic syndrome becomes especially difficult and protracted, with all this, even taking a drug relieves it for a short time. Severe depression, not often with suicidal thoughts.
In sick people, a decrease in the intellectual-mnestic properties of the personality becomes pronounced, they lose their individual traits, become similar to each other. Asthenia and adynamia predominate. There are general aging, cachexia, gray-earthy skin, trophic disorders in the form of crumbling teeth, hair loss; diseases of individual organs or systems: cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, gastrointestinal tract; impaired coordination of movements.
There are acute and chronic cocaine poisoning. Acute cocaine poisoning is characterized by blanching of the face, dilated pupils, general weakness, dizziness, palpitations, abnormal pulse, shortness of breath. In the future, there is a sharp disorder of blood circulation and respiratory functions. Death may occur from paralysis of the respiratory center. In the mental status, there is a change in the state of consciousness and psychomotor agitation.
Chronic poisoning begins gradually with long-term use of cocaine. After taking the first doses of cocaine, there is a slight dizziness, a slight pain in the head, which is soon replaced by a slight increase in intellectual activity and a pleasant state of health. Graphomania arises, i.e. patients write many letters, statements with endless arguments and repetitions.
Excitation lasts within 2 hours, is replaced by a breakdown, apathy, a depressed state. Some patients experience a feeling of weightlessness. Illusions and hallucinations appear, mostly of a visual and auditory nature, not often accompanied by fear.
You get used to cocaine pretty quickly. Memory is gradually decreasing. Drug addicts become callous, selfish, suspicious, suspicious. A number of somatoneurological disorders are noted – the pupils dilate, the reaction of the pupils to light is sluggish, the eyes acquire a peculiar luster, dry mouth appears, tinnitus, palpitations. Appetite decreases. The skin is pale, the muscles are flabby. It seems to some that cocaine crystals are embedded under the skin, that worms, bugs, and bedbugs crawl there.
There is an exhaustion of the body, a decrease in reactivity, hence a high tendency to infectious diseases. Furunculosis is noted, chronic diseases (tuberculosis, etc.) that previously occurred are exacerbated. With cocaine addiction, delirium (“delirious tremens”) is noted, very similar to alcohol. Begins on 2-3 days of withdrawal from a short period of precursors – poor sleep, suspicion, alertness. Then there are illusions, hallucinations – visual, auditory. It seems to patients that they are surrounded by people, animals, small animals predominate – beetles, spiders, bedbugs, worms, mice, etc. They are “built” threatening faces. Auditory hallucinations of a commenting, condemning nature. Monologues, dialogues. In the aftermath, some voices scold them, insult them, others pity and protect them. Mental automatisms also appear, patients feel how extraneous forces act on them, they are affected by electricity, a magnet, cosmic rays. Based on these hallucinations, a secondary delusion of persecution and influence is formed. Being in the power of the described experiences, they do not often become persecutors themselves and attack innocent people, commit crimes. On the basis of visual, auditory hallucinations, delusions of jealousy are possible. The voices hint at the betrayal of the wife, the girl, their obscene behavior. Tension and suspicion are growing. Criticism is completely broken. There is almost no amnesia for hallucinations. Deliriums are short-lived. With cocaine withdrawal and active treatment, patients recover fairly quickly. Being in the power of the described experiences, they do not often become persecutors themselves and attack innocent people, commit crimes. On the basis of visual, auditory hallucinations, delusions of jealousy are possible. The voices hint at the betrayal of the wife, the girl, their obscene behavior. Tension and suspicion are growing. Criticism is completely broken. There is almost no amnesia for hallucinations. Deliriums are short-lived. With cocaine withdrawal and active treatment, patients recover fairly quickly. Being in the power of the described experiences, they do not often become persecutors themselves and attack innocent people, commit crimes. On the basis of visual, auditory hallucinations, delusions of jealousy are possible. The voices hint at the betrayal of the wife, the girl, their obscene behavior. Tension and suspicion are growing. Criticism is completely broken. There is almost no amnesia for hallucinations. Deliriums are short-lived. With cocaine withdrawal and active treatment, patients recover fairly quickly. Deliriums are short-lived. With cocaine withdrawal and active treatment, patients recover fairly quickly. Deliriums are short-lived. With cocaine withdrawal and active treatment, patients recover fairly quickly.
The addictive effect can be caused by products from the group of central nervous system stimulants, for example, phenamine, etc. These products can be prescribed to reduce feelings of fatigue, improve mood, feel energized, alert, increase work capacity, reduce the need for sleep. Incorrect intake of products can lead to the development of drug addiction. Addiction starts quickly, then tolerance to the product increases, it will be necessary to increase the dose of the substance in order to induce euphoria and successfully fight depression and fatigue.
This group of substances with a hypnotic effect consists of 2 subgroups:
- derivatives of barbituric acid;
- non-barbituric drugs, but causing a hypnotic effect.
All these funds are united by a similar clinical picture that occurs as a result of the constant or periodically renewed use of these funds. Doses of drugs taken, as a rule, exceed therapeutic doses. Getting used to these substances goes in several ways – imprudent long-term treatment of insomnia, carried out first under the supervision of a doctor, and then independently by the patients themselves, taking medications without the advice and control of a doctor, using these drugs as narcotic drugs.
Possible acute poisoning in suicide attempts. In these cases, deep sleep begins, which can sometimes be interrupted, but diffuse inhibition in the cerebral cortex continues to hold on and therefore hypnotic phases are noted in the sick. This state can last for days or weeks. In some cases, the effect when taking doses that are significantly higher than therapeutic ones can manifest itself in pronounced symptoms of impaired coordination of movements, weakening of muscle strength, decrease or loss of reflexes. At the same time, vegetative symptoms are noted: low blood pressure, high body temperature, bradycardia, acrocyanosis. The described picture can be supplemented by darkening of consciousness in the form of stunning.
With chronic use of sleeping pills, the need to continue taking products gradually increases. The dose of the drug is increased. Many drug addicts switch to taking drugs several times a day. There is a growing psychological dependence associated with the subjective assessment of the product’s action. Withdrawal syndrome is clearly expressed and characteristic of this drug addiction. It comes to light 20–24 hours later after withdrawal from the drug, reaches its highest intensity for 3–4 days, then the phenomena begin to subside. During the withdrawal syndrome, a wide range of vegetative-vascular, neurological and psychotic symptoms are observed. Anxiety arises, sleep is disturbed, weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting are detected, collaptoid conditions are not uncommon, and blood pressure drops sharply. Visual distortions are possible. There is an increase in reflexes, tremor, reaching convulsive twitching of the muscles. Many patients develop epileptiform seizures. Patients become irritable, angry, spiteful.
Short-term, and sometimes long-term delirious states and hallucinosis are possible. Personality changes are becoming more and more obvious. In the beginning, irritability, explosiveness, selfishness, and malice predominate. Then memory impairments are detected, the pace of thinking slows down (becomes stiff).
Signs of chronic poisoning become pronounced – anemia, agranulocytosis, polyneuritis phenomena. Possible skin rashes on the hands, feet, mucous membranes of the oral cavity. All these signs are characteristic of this type of drug addiction and, together with anamnestic data, help to make a diagnosis. It is possible to trace the development of three successive stages that are characteristic of other drug addictions. Addiction to sleeping pills at the chronic stage of the development of the disease can give mental disorders with a pseudo-paralytic picture – with a general intellectual decline, there are ideas of greatness, euphoria, and a lack of criticism of one’s condition. On the 6-7th day of the withdrawal syndrome, psychoses are possible, in particular, delirium, which has its own characteristics. It proceeds with less pronounced excitation, most often in the supine position. Meanwhile,
This type of drug addiction is widespread in some states of Western Europe, the USA. The main drug of this group is lysergic acid diethylamide – LSD. In acute intoxication, nausea, vomiting, salivation are observed, blood pressure decreases, excitation begins, sometimes ataxia, and spastic paralysis. Death from paralysis of the respiratory center is possible. Signs of mental disorders appear after 15–30 minutes. after taking the product and resemble a state of mild alcohol intoxication. Then general weakness begins, patients move their arms and legs with great difficulty. Eyes are closed and pictures of the past pass in front of the inner eye. Sounds become louder, objects distant and blurry. Visual hallucinations are bright, colorful, kaleidoscopic and do not bring joy to the subject.
Then elements of depression and deceptions of perception join. There are thoughts of unwillingness to live. Along with visual hallucinations, there are tactile, olfactory pseudohallucinations. Auditory are not often noted. Fear, suspicion, delusional ideas of relationship, persecution may appear. Thinking is disturbed, sometimes it accelerates, sometimes it slows down the type of flow of thoughts. Mental pictures of intoxication depend on the individual traits and typological features of the higher nervous activity of the subject. They can manifest themselves in hallucinatory-illusory pictures, hallucinatory-paranoid or schizophrenia-like syndromes.
The main stages of treatment for people suffering from drug addiction include:
- detoxification, restorative, stimulating therapy in combination with the withdrawal of a narcotic substance that is the subject of abuse;
- the main one is active anti-drug treatment;
- anti-relapse therapy.
The main rule of drug addiction treatment is hospitalization, regardless of whether the patient is in a state of withdrawal symptoms, acute poisoning, chronic intoxication or psychosis.
This is due to the fact that drug addicts are always in a state of fear of somatovegetative and psychotic crises of the withdrawal state. It will be especially sensitive to monitor the behavior and condition of the sick. Attentive should be to patients by the end of 2-3 weeks of treatment, during the period of unstable balance, when there is an irresistible desire (craving) to use drugs. Such conditions are self-limited traditionally for 2-4 days. It is necessary to combine the treatment of the sick with psychotherapeutic influence, to constantly inspire the patients with confidence in the success of the treatment, in the probabilities of a complete cure.