A herniated disc is a rupture of the fibrous ring of the intervertebral disc, through which, under the influence of pressure, a fragment of the nucleus pulposus protrudes. The anatomical structure of the intervertebral disc will help to understand the mechanism of hernia formation.
The main danger of an intervertebral hernia is the likelihood of a narrowing of the spinal canal, and as a result, a powerful compression of the nerve roots and the membrane of the spinal cord. This, in turn, can cause inflammation and swelling of the surrounding tissues. With all this, a person feels severe pain in the area of localization of the intervertebral hernia and along the passage of nerve endings.
A herniated disc is a displacement of part of a deformed intervertebral disc. The most common manifestation of an intervertebral hernia is the lumbar spine.
Most often, this disease occurs between the ages of 20 and 50 years and is one of the most common causes of temporary loss of ability to work and, infrequently, disability of the patient.
Herniated discs are a severe complication of spinal osteochondrosis.
The disease appears as a result of a rupture of the intervertebral disc. The resulting vertebral hernia, bulging back and to the side, puts pressure on the nerve root at the point of its exit from the spinal canal and causes inflammation, accompanied by edema. This explains why the loss of sensation and pain does not appear immediately after the onset of the disease.
The pinched nerve root sends pain impulses to the brain, which are perceived as pain in that part, the susceptibility of which is provided by this nerve. Also in this part, coordination of movements and muscle strength are disturbed.
Symptoms of the disease depend on the location of the intervertebral hernia in the spine.
- shoulder pain;
- arm pain;
- pressure surges;
- a combination of headaches with pressure surges and dizziness;
- numbness of fingers.
- numbness of the toes;
- pain in the leg, passing more often along the back and less often along the anterior and lateral plane of the thigh to the foot;
- isolated pain in the lower leg or foot;
- numbness in the groin (constant (more than 3 months) pain in the lumbar region.
- constant pain in the thoracic region in people when working in a forced position (surgeons, welders, dressmakers, etc.);
- a combination of pain in the thoracic spine with scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis.
Note: Intervertebral hernias of the thoracic spine are not common.
After treatment, to strengthen weakened back muscles and return the spine to its former mobility, it is worth starting therapeutic exercises. Massage contributes to a faster recovery after the treatment of an intervertebral hernia.