Mastopathy is a benign disease of the mammary gland, which manifests itself in the pathological growth of its tissues. Not often, having heard the diagnosis of “mastopathy” from a mammologist, a woman does not attach much importance to it, because according to statistics, this breast disease occurs in 60–90% of women. Should I be worried? Undoubtedly. Mastopathy has been known for more than a hundred years and still remains the most common disease of the mammary gland. The special attention of doctors to it is due to the fact that benign breast tumors can develop against its background: fibroadenoma, intraductal papillomatosis. In addition, the risk of developing breast cancer increases three to five times. In terms of morbidity and mortality from malignant neoplasms of the female population in recent years, it is breast cancer that ranks first.

Causes of mastopathy

The first of the provoking factors can be called abortion. This is a gross intervention in the harmonious hormonal system of the entire female body, tuned in to pregnancy. The mammary gland begins to prepare for the production of milk literally from the first days of pregnancy, and by the time of the abortion, significant changes are already taking place in it. Forcibly turning this process in the opposite direction certainly has a very harmful effect on the tissues of the mammary gland.

The second factor is gynecological diseases. The mammary gland is a single system with other reproductive organs, so any failure of this system also affects the mammary gland. That is why 75 percent of gynecological inflammatory diseases are accompanied by changes in the mammary gland. Yes, sometimes even a simple “stagnation” in the genital area is enough to provoke the development of mastopathy.

The mammary gland belongs to hormone-dependent organs, that is, the state of its glandular tissue changes depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. It is noticed that mastopathy is often accompanied by such hormonal disorders as the appearance of anovulatory cycles, shortening of the luteal phase. Diseases of other organs that are not related to the reproductive system can also provoke mastopathy. The mammary gland enters the endocrine system of the body along with the ovaries, liver, thyroid and pancreas, adrenal glands. Therefore, the disease of any of these organs can lead to changes in it. That is why the correct treatment of mastopathy begins with the identification of the cause, which sometimes lies far “aside” from purely “female” problems.

And besides, like cancer, mastopathy is largely the result of neurological disorders. Frequent stress, persistent nervous tension, worry about tomorrow is often a familiar condition. And mastopathy, as it were, loops this problem: appearing from nervous disorders, it itself becomes the cause of constant severe stress, fears, depressions of a woman. That is why psychotherapy is also one of the main means of dealing with it.

Manifestations of mastopathy

Mastopathy begins with the growth of connective tissue, with all this, small nodules and bands are formed. This form of mastopathy is called diffuse. Its main manifestation is mastalgia – soreness of the mammary gland, which occurs before menstruation and subsides at its onset. Periodically, spherical seals may appear in the upper chest.

It’s not often that women ignore these symptoms without seeing a doctor for years. And they make a dangerous mistake, since it is at an early stage that mastopathy lends itself well to conservative treatment.

With the further development of the disease, dense nodes ranging in size from a pea to a walnut are formed in the breast tissue. This form of mastopathy is called nodular. With all this, chest pains become more intense, they can radiate to the shoulder, armpit. Sometimes the slightest touch to the chest is painful. Colostrum, a bloody or clear fluid, is likely to come out of the nipple. When feeling the chest, the lobulation or graininess of the tissues is easily determined. At this stage of the disease, pain and changes in the gland do not disappear with the onset of menstruation.

It is not often that very young girls with significant breast seals come to an appointment with a mammologist. This is the so-called dyshormonal mastopathy – stimulated by age-related changes in the hormonal background of the body.

In essence, mastopathy is a benign formation in the mammary gland. Seals periodically appear, grow, decrease and disappear. But they can (!) become the first link in the chain of transformations into malignant tumors. Therefore, women diagnosed with mastopathy belong to a group of people with an increased risk of cancer, they are observed and treated by an oncologist-mammologist.

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