Leukocytosis is an increase in the absolute content of leukocytes in peripheral blood.
Pathological symptomatic leukocytosis develops during purulent-inflammatory processes, a number of infectious diseases under the influence of specific pathogens or as a result of the reaction of the bone marrow to tissue breakdown caused by toxic effects or circulatory disorders (for example, with myocardial infarction).
Short-term leukocytosis may occur as a result of the “release” of leukocytes into the blood from the bone marrow or other tissues (for example, during stress). In all these cases, leukocytosis is reactive in nature and disappears along with the cause that caused it. Leukocytosis may be associated with tumor growth of hematopoietic tissue (with leukemia).
Leukocytosis is observed with lobar pneumonia, various septic diseases, typhus and relapsing fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, etc. Sometimes the number of leukocytes increases several times, for example, with lobar pneumonia it reaches 20,000-30,000 or more per 1 mm3.
Neutrophilic leukocytosis . Neutrophilic leukocytosis is based on various mechanisms. More often it is caused by an increase in the production and (or) release of leukocytes from the bone marrow into the blood. At the same time, there is an increase in the absolute number of leukocytes in the vascular bed (absolute, or true, neutrophilic leukocytosis). In a number of conditions, despite an increase in the number of neutrophils in 1 μl of blood, their absolute content in the vascular bed is unchanged.
Eosinophilic leukocytosis is caused by the acceleration of the production and (or) release of eosinophils from the bone marrow into the blood. A common cause of eosinophilic leukocytosis is immediate-type allergic reactions, in particular to medicinal products and vaccines.
Basophilic leukocytosis , due to an increase in the production of basophils, is a relatively rare hematological sign. An increase in the number of basophils in the blood can be observed with myxedema, nonspecific ulcerative colitis, allergic reactions, and pregnancy.
Lymphocytic leukocytosis (lymphocytosis) occurs in some acute (whooping cough, viral hepatitis) and chronic infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, brucellosis), with infectious mononucleosis. Infectious lymphocytosis occurs with a pronounced increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood, its mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.
Monocytic leukocytosis (monocytosis) is not common. It is observed with bacterial infections (for example, with tuberculosis, brucellosis, subacute septic endocarditis), also with diseases caused by rickettsia and protozoa (with malaria, typhus, leishmaniasis), with malignant neoplasms (ovarian cancer, breast cancer, etc.), sarcoidosis, diffuse connective tissue diseases.
Articles from the forum on the topic ” Leukocytosis “
Leukocytosis is a change in the cellular composition of the blood, characterized by an increase in the number of leukocytes.
The norm of leukocytes in the blood is 3.5-8.8 109 / l, but this figure may vary up or down, depending on the laboratory and the methods used. For adults, leukocytosis is considered to be an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood of more than 9.0 109 / l. For children of different ages, the concept of leukocytosis is different, which is associated with fluctuations in the rate of leukocytes in the blood as the child grows. So, for example, for a child aged 1-3 days, an increase in leukocytes over 32.0 109/l will be considered leukocytosis, and for a child at 7 years old – more than 11.0 109/l.
Leukocytosis can be physiological and pathological, the first occurs in healthy people, the second – in some disease states.