Cataract

A cataract is a disease in which the lens of the eye loses its transparency. Turbidity serves as an obstacle to the path of light rays from objects that freely enter the eye during normal vision. Therefore, with cataracts, one of the main symptoms is blurred vision.

Beginningsenile cataract is characterized by a slight decrease in vision and the presence in the lens (detected when viewed with an ophthalmoscope) of streaky opacities extending from its periphery to the center; with immature cataracts, the decrease in vision is more significant, which is associated with an increase in opacities in the lens; mature cataract is characterized by a sharp decrease in vision (up to light perception) and clouding of the entire substance of the lens, which becomes grayish-white. The maturation of senile cataracts traditionally lasts 1-3 years or more.

The only treatment for cataracts is surgery. Various conservative therapeutic measures (drops, injections, etc.) can only slightly slow down the progression of the disease and delay the operation. With a simple removal of a cloudy lens, for more or less normal vision, additional correction is required with the help of powerful – over + 12D glasses. Modern methods are based on replacing the clouded lens with an artificial one. The most perfect today and the most common method of cataract removal in the most developed countries of the world is the phacoemulsification method.

 

Intracapsular extraction

This method involves removing the cloudy lens completely along with its capsular bag. Global disorders of the internal structures of the eye can lead to a lot of side effects and complications, so this operation is used only in case of severe weakness of the ligamentous apparatus of the lens, for example, in some cases of post-traumatic cataract, when the preservation of the capsular bag is simply unbelievable.

Extracapsular extraction

Usually, during extracapsular extraction, a wide incision is made in the cornea, through which the lens nucleus and lens masses are removed. The crystal pouch remains intact. After removing the clouded lens, a posterior chamber lens is implanted into it. This operation allows you to largely preserve the correct anatomical structure of the eye, but, due to the extensive area of ​​intervention and large sutures, it requires a long rehabilitation period and often leads to the development of postoperative astigmatism.

tunnel extraction

With this method, a small tunnel incision is made. The valve properties of such an incision make it possible not to suture. Before removal, the cloudy lens is mechanically crushed inside the lens bag into small pieces using special tools, which makes it possible to remove it through a small incision and significantly reduce the negative side effects of the previous method.

Phacoemulsification

Today, phacoemulsification is recognized as the most non-traumatic and safe method all over the world. Phacoemulsification is the removal of the cataract using ultrasound through a very small, self-sealing incision. Such an operation does not provoke the development of postoperative astigmatism, does not require suturing, and provides a quick anatomical and functional recovery of the eye. An ultrasonic probe is inserted into the lens through a micro-incision. The lens substance, destroyed by ultrasound to the state of emulsion, is sucked off. After that, through the same micro-incision, a flexible, roll-up artificial lens with shape memory is introduced into the lens bag. The procedure does not require suturing and minimizes the risk of complications in the hands of an experienced surgeon.

Today, the method of phacoemulsification is increasingly winning the hearts and minds of ophthalmologists. However, the advantages of this method are manifested only when several important conditions are combined: the exact observance of all technological stages of the operation, the use of high-quality expensive equipment, instruments, consumables and artificial lenses, and, most importantly, the high qualification of the surgeon. All this can be afforded only by a fairly well-to-do clinic, of a very high class.

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