Carcinoma is a malignant tumor that affects the epithelial cells of the skin and internal organs of a person. Carcinoma can develop in any tissue structure containing epithelial cells. Often, the location of a tumor can be determined by the nature of the cells that make up the tumor.

Several different types of carcinomas can develop in the organs of the human body: for example, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma often occur in the cervix (but not at the same time). Most often, carcinoma occurs in the skin, colon in both sexes, in the lungs and prostate in men, in the breast and cervix in women.

Basal cell carcinoma– characterized by limited and slow growth. The disease begins with the appearance on the skin of a small, clearly demarcated nodule with a smooth surface of pink or red. The presence of a translucent pearl belt is characteristic. The tumor can contain varying amounts of melanin pigment, so its color varies from pink to dark brown. As the nodule grows, its central part ulcerates and becomes covered with crusts. The tumor may present as satellite nodules or a crusted central area of ​​ulceration. A common symptom is associated telangiectasia. The tumor may ulcerate and invade underlying tissues. Types of basal cell carcinoma: superficial, nodular, pigmented, scleroderma-like (sclerosing). Metastasis occurs very rarely.

Squamous cell carcinoma – consists of cells of stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Tumor cells are held together by desmosomes (intercellular bridges in a light microscope). The central part of the epithelial nests may contain concentric aggregates of keratin (keratin pearls). The tumor grows rapidly and metastasizes (hematogenously and lymphogenously).

lung carcinoma. Almost all cases of primary lung cancer (within 95%) are of 4 main types: epidermoid (squamous), adenocarcinoma (including bronchioloalveolar cancer), large cell and small cell (including oat cell carcinoma). Therapeutic tactics is based on the histological classification: whether the tumor is small cell or is represented by another type of cell. Small cell carcinoma is widely disseminated in the body, while large cell carcinoma can be localized. Epidermoid cancer is more common in men; adenocarcinoma – in women. Epidermoid and small cell tumors, in typical cases, are localized as central neoplasms; adenocarcinomas and large cell carcinomas traditionally develop as peripheral nodules and masses. Epidermoid and large cell tumors form cavities in 20-30% of patients.

Carcinoma treatment

Treatment depends on the nature of the primary tumor, since all possible types of it react differently to the drug therapy used.

Treatment of lung carcinoma

Surgical intervention is carried out in patients with a localized form of the tumor and large cell lung cancer, but most initially think about the likelihood of a “saving” resection that radically eliminates metastases. In cases of large-cell lung cancer that is not subject to resection, metastasis of the process or refusal of surgical intervention, radiation therapy is offered; although there is no consensus on non-radical surgery or additional chemotherapy.

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