Pulmonary infarction is a disease that develops as a result of the formation of a blood clot (thrombosis) in the pulmonary artery system or its drift from peripheral veins (thromboembolism). Surgical interventions predispose to this, in the postpartum period, heart failure, fractures of long tubular bones, malignant tumors, and prolonged bed rest. The closure of the lumen of the vessel by a thrombus leads to an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery system and contributes to hemorrhage into the lung tissue. Attachment of a bacterial infection causes inflammation of this area (pneumonia).
Symptoms and course are determined by the caliber, location and number of blood vessels closed by a thrombus, initial diseases of the lungs and heart. The most common symptoms are: sudden onset of shortness of breath (suddenly increased), chest pain, pallor with an ashen skin tone, cyanosis, heart rhythm disturbances (acceleration, atrial fibrillation, extrasystole), lowering blood pressure, changes in the nervous system, increased body temperature, cough with mucous or bloody sputum, hemoptysis. A pleural friction rub, fine bubbling rales in a limited area may be heard.
Recognition. Radiography of the lungs (expansion of the root of the lung, a triangular shadow of infarct pneumonia, signs of pleurisy). The decisive role belongs to selective angiopulmography, lung scintigraphy.
Treatment . Urgent hospitalization at the first sign of a pulmonary infarction. Fibrinolytic (thrombus-dissolving) agents: streptokinase, streptodecase, alvesin, fibrinolysin, etc. in combination with heparin, eufillin, rheopolyglucin, antibiotics. After the improvement of the general condition and the elimination of vitally dangerous manifestations of the disease, treatment is carried out according to the general rules for the treatment of pneumonia.