Yersiniosis

Yersiniosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals. Typical fever, intoxication, damage to the gastrointestinal tract, joints, skin. Tendency to an undulating course with exacerbations and relapses. The causative agent belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, the Yersinia genus. The role of various animals as a source of infections is unequal. The reservoir of the pathogen in nature are small rodents that live both in the wild and synanthropic. A more significant source of infection for humans are cows and small cattle, which are acutely ill or excrete the pathogen. The main route of transmission of the infection is alimentary, that is, through food, most often vegetables. They suffer from yersiniosis at any age, but more often children at the age of 1-3 years. Basically, sporadic cases of the disease predominate, there is an autumn-winter seasonality.

Symptoms and course of yersiniosis . Extremely varied. Signs of damage to various organs and systems are revealed in one sequence or another. Most often, yersiniosis begins with acute gastroenteritis. In the future, the disease can proceed either as an acute intestinal infection, or generalized – i.e. distributed throughout the body. All forms are characterized by common signs: acute onset, fever, intoxication, abdominal pain, upset stool, rash, joint pain, liver enlargement, a tendency to exacerbations and relapses. Taking into account the duration, acute (up to 3 months), protracted (from 3 to 6 months) and chronic (more than 6 months) course of the disease are distinguished.

Incubation period for yersiniosis1-2 days, can reach 10 days. The most persistent symptoms of intestinal damage in the form of gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, enterocolitis, terminal ileitis, acute appendicitis. Pain in the abdomen of a constant or cramping nature, of various localization, nausea, vomiting, loose stools with mucus and pus, sometimes with blood from 2 to 15 times a day. Symptoms of general intoxication are manifested in the following: high temperature, in severe cases – toxicosis, dehydration and a decrease in body temperature. At the onset of the disease, a punctate or small-spotted rash on the trunk and extremities, liver damage, and meningeal syndrome may appear. In a later period – mono or polyarthritis, erythema nodosum, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, iritis. These manifestations are regarded as an allergic reaction. Neutrophilic leukocytosis and high ESR are observed in the peripheral blood. The disease lasts from a week to several months.

Recognition of yersiniosis . Bacteriological examination of feces, serological reactions in paired sera.

Treatment of yersiniosis . In the absence of concomitant diseases, in cases of mild and erased course of yersiniosis, patients can be treated at home by an infectious disease doctor. It is based on pathogenetic and etiotropic therapy aimed at detoxification, restoration of water and electrolyte losses, normal blood composition, suppression of the pathogen. Medications – levomycetin at the rate of 2.0 g per day for 12 days, from other products – tetracycline, gentamicin, rondomycin, doxycycline and others in the usual daily dosages.

Prevention of yersiniosis . Compliance with sanitary rules at catering establishments, cooking technology and periods of food storage (vegetables, fruits, etc.). Timely detection of patients and carriers of yersiniosis, disinfection of premises.

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