Intestinal volvulus is a form of strangulation obstruction due to the rotation of a section of the small or large intestine along with the mesentery within the longitudinal axis.
Contributing factors may be an increase in intra-abdominal pressure during physical exertion (weight lifting), increased peristalsis when the intestines are overfilled with indigestible food in large volumes, especially after prolonged fasting, constipation.
Suddenly, severe pains are found in the navel, in the upper abdomen or pain of indeterminate localization, there is a delay in gases and feces, sometimes after the release of the lower parts of the intestine, vomiting, bloating, disorders in the form of Val’s symptom (with an isolated loop or in the form of several transverse or obliquely running shafts), splashing noise, pallor, weakening or increased heart rate, drop in blood pressure, etc. The symptomatology is more pronounced, the higher the volvulus and the more the intestinal segment is twisted.
With volvulus of the sigmoid colon, the disease is preceded by chronic constipation and bouts of pain (incomplete volvulus), which are sometimes repeated more than once.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the data of the characteristic course of the disease, x-ray and ultrasound.
With volvulus of the sigmoid colon, siphon and high enemas sometimes help. With the ineffectiveness of enemas, surgical intervention is indicated.