Jaundice is a complex of symptoms caused by an excess of bilirubin in the blood and is manifested by staining the skin and mucous membranes in yellow. Hepatitis A is also sometimes referred to as jaundice.
Jaundice is a characteristic symptom of diseases of the liver, biliary tract, as well as diseases that occur with massive hemolysis. In all cases, jaundice is the result of a violation of the dynamic balance between the formation and release of bilirubin.
Causes of jaundice
The cause of jaundice is a violation of the metabolism of bilirubin of various etiologies.
Varieties of jaundice
There are three main pathogenetic forms of jaundice
- subhepatic (it is also mechanical occurs due to a violation of the outflow of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum)
- hepatic (occurs as a result of damage to the liver cells and bile capillaries. As part of hepatic jaundice, depending on the pathological process, hepatocellular, enzymatic and cholestatic jaundice are distinguished)
- suprahepatic (occurs due to increased breakdown of red blood cells (hemolytic jaundice), resulting in the formation of an increased amount of bilirubin)
The main symptoms of jaundice
Manifested by yellow staining of the skin and mucous membranes. There are various shades of yellow (saffron yellow, lemon yellow, olive, etc.) depending on the causes that caused it. In addition to changing the color of the skin, jaundice can also be manifested by skin itching, enlarged liver, discoloration of urine and feces, loss of strength, irritability, headache, fever, loss of appetite
Treatment of jaundice
A patient with jaundice will need to be hospitalized as soon as possible in order to clarify the diagnosis and conduct rational treatment. Very important and not often of paramount importance is the treatment of the underlying disease, including surgery (for example, with obstructive jaundice).