Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a hematological syndrome characterized by impaired hemoglobin synthesis due to iron deficiency and manifested by anemia and sideropenia. It is observed predominantly in women.
Depending on the severity of iron deficiency in the body, there are three stages:
- prelatent iron deficiency in the body – there are no clinical signs at this stage, the diagnosis can only be established on the basis of determining the level of serum ferritin;
- latent iron deficiency in the body – at this stage, as a result of a violation of the intake of the necessary metal in the tissue, a decrease in the activity of tissue enzymes (cytochromes, catalase, succinate dehydrogenase, etc.) is noted, which is manifested by the development of sideropenic syndrome. The clinical manifestations of sideropenic syndrome include taste perversion, addiction to spicy, salty, spicy foods, muscle weakness, degenerative changes in the skin and appendages, etc.;
- iron deficiency anemia – in its course there are two periods: a period of latent iron deficiency and a period of overt anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Causes of iron deficiency anemia
Iron deficiency anemia is based on iron deficiency in the body, which most often occurs due to dietary errors, chronic blood loss, etc.
Blood loss leads to iron deficiency anemia: prolonged heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 5 days); blood loss during childbirth; significant blood loss (with injuries, after operations); regular frequent donation; chronic bleeding (chronic posthemorrhagic anemia) with gastritis, hemorrhoids, glomerulonephritis, etc.
With gastritis, iron deficiency anemia occurs due to insufficient absorption of iron.
Iron deficiency anemia can develop as a result of iron deficiency in the red bone marrow, where hemoglobin is synthesized.
The main symptoms of iron deficiency anemia
Anemia develops slowly, so its symptoms are not always pronounced. With anemia, nails often exfoliate, deform and break, hair splits, the skin becomes dry and pale, “jams” appear in the corners of the mouth, weakness, malaise, dizziness, headache, flies before the eyes, fainting.
With anemia, there is a perversion of smell and taste (desire to chew chalk, snow, raw dough, like the smells of gasoline, acetone, varnish, naphthalene.
It is often difficult to swallow dry food.
Children with anemia are weak and study poorly: they quickly get tired, become distracted, learning deteriorates, 80% of babies develop muscle weakness.
Treatment of iron deficiency anemia
Requires an integrated approach: elimination of chronic blood loss, diseases in which iron is poorly absorbed, nutrition correction.
For the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, the intake of iron-containing products for several months is indicated.
An obligatory component of the treatment of anemia is a diet aimed at increasing hemoglobin. When compiling a menu to increase hemoglobin, it will be necessary to take into account that every day an adult needs 0.7-1 g of iron or more, pregnant women 4-6 mg.
The increase in hemoglobin is facilitated by the use of “red” meat (veal), 20-30% of the iron contained in it is absorbed, all fruits are red, red wine in moderation.
An increase in hemoglobin is facilitated by the use of vitamin C, which is found in sweet peppers, rose hips, and citrus fruits. In the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, it should be borne in mind that the use of dairy products, tannins, which are rich in tea and coffee, interferes with the absorption of iron.
Consuming iron products can lead to constipation, so they will need to be combined with a vegetable diet.
Prevention of iron deficiency anemia
- Periodic monitoring of the blood picture;
- eating food with a high iron content (meat, liver, etc.);
- preventive intake of iron products in risk groups.
- prompt elimination of sources of blood loss.