Chemical method of contraception
Spermicides are creams, gels, aerosol foams, as well as foam and non-foam suppositories, containing an active ingredient that inactivates spermatozoa within a few seconds (maximum 2 minutes). Usually used in conjunction with other contraceptives, such as diaphragms, contraceptive sponges and condoms. 3% of women use only spermicides.
- 2 types of substances are used as an active ingredient
- Surfactants (for example, nonoxynol-9)
- Active enzyme inhibitors.
- The active ingredients destroy spermatozoa, reduce their motility or inactivate the enzymes necessary for the penetration of the spermatozoon into the egg. Part of the spermatozoa that penetrate the cervical mucus after exposure to spermicide has a reduced fertility.
- Recommendations for use
- Must be combined with barrier methods of contraception
- Spermicide should be re-injected with every intercourse
- After sexual intercourse with the use of spermicide, douching should not be done for 6-8 hours
- After use, the applicator should be rinsed with water.
- Indications: contraception in women with a reduced risk of pregnancy (rare sex or late reproductive age); combination with a rhythmic method of contraception; a temporary break in the use of the IUD or oral contraceptives.
- Disadvantages: relatively low contraceptive effect (pregnancy rate is 25-30 cases per 100 women per year), the likelihood of teratogenic effects on the fetus during pregnancy.
- Advantages. Protects against sexually transmitted diseases, inflammation of the pelvic organs, especially when combined with barrier methods of contraception. It has been established that nonoxynol-9 also inactivates gonococci, genital herpes virus, trichomonads, treponema pallidum, and even HIV.
Interrupted sexual intercourse (coitus interruptus).
Ordinary sexual intercourse ends with ejaculation outside the woman’s genital tract. The method has many disadvantages
- Low contraceptive effect (15-30 pregnancies per 100 women per year)
- 60% of women don’t have orgasms
- With prolonged use, the development of congestion in the pelvis, frigidity, ovarian dysfunction is likely
- In men, long-term use can cause neurasthenia, reduced potency, prostatic hypertrophy.