Sinusitis is an inflammation of the maxillary paranasal sinus. This is one of the most common diseases that lead to the improbability of nasal breathing.

The maxillary sinuses, like all nasal sinuses, open into the nasal cavity with tiny (1-3 mm) excretory openings. With swelling of the mucous membrane, these holes close, and bacteria begin to actively develop in the accumulating mucus, which leads to inflammation. This inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is called sinusitis.

The reasons

The main cause of sinusitis is an infection – bacteria or viruses enter the maxillary sinus through the nasal cavity or through the blood and cause an inflammatory process.

In the presence of an acute inflammatory process in sinusitis occurring on the nasal mucosa, edema from the nasal cavity extends to the mucous membrane of the opening and the maxillary sinus. The mucous membrane swells and the lumen leading from the sinus to the nasal cavity gradually closes.

Under such conditions, changes begin in the maxillary sinus: air does not enter the sinus, and therefore oxygen, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the mucous membrane; increasing pressure, which is the cause of pain in the patient; in the sinus, the accumulation of mucus continues, which, due to a violation of the outflow, stagnates in the sinus and gradually becomes inflammatory.

Mucus of this nature is called exudate. It is an excellent environment for the introduction of new and development of existing bacteria and viruses. They produce so-called toxins – waste products that, being absorbed into the bloodstream, cause symptoms such as malaise, headache, decreased appetite, increased body temperature, etc. Gradually, the mucus turns into pus, which has a viscous consistency and is very poorly evacuated from the sinus , even during normal fistula operation.

The mucous membrane swells sharply, while the anastomosis does not work. Due to the fact that the reproduction of bacteria continues, and they again and again produce toxins, there is much more pus. Gradually, it can fill the entire sinus. If until this moment adequate treatment is not carried out, then the purulent discharge can break into the surrounding structures. First of all, the tissues of the eye react – a gradually increasing swelling of the eyelids appears, they turn red, protrusion of the eyeball forward can be noted – exophthalmos. The purulent process can destroy the walls of the maxillary sinus and penetrate into the bone tissue. Inflammation of the bone of the upper jaw develops – osteomyelitis.

So, after a small deepening into the causes of the development of sinusitis, we will consider more factors that predispose to the occurrence of this disease. They are next.

Conditions that disrupt nasal breathing: deviated septum, vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis (enlarged turbinates), in children – adenoids, allergic diseases of the nose.

Immune disorders, which are caused by long-term chronic diseases, parasitosis, allergic conditions, etc.

Untimely or incorrect treatment of traditional colds, acute respiratory infections, rhinitis, which causes sinusitis as a complication.

Bacteriocarrier. Often, the so-called staphylococcus aureus is found in the patient, which lives in the human nasopharynx for a long time. The latter, if he had not been examined, would not have known that he was a carrier of bacteria. For a long time, these bacteria may not cause serious damage to health. but even with a traditional cold, staphylococcus aureus can become activated and show its pathogenic properties.

Congenital disorders in the development of the anatomical structures of the nasal cavity.


Unpleasant sensations in the nose, bridge of the nose, within the nasal region, turning into pain.

With the development of sinusitis, a person begins to experience pain that is less pronounced in the morning and increases in the evening. The pain is not concentrated in a specific place, often perceived as a general headache. Sometimes inflammation of the sinuses can cause pain in the cheek or in the area of ​​​​the upper teeth.

Difficulty in nasal breathing.

Persistent nasal congestion and a nasal voice are also signs of inflammation. As a rule, both halves of the nose are affected, but there is also an alternating congestion of the right and left sides. Violation of nasal breathing traditionally worries people much more than a runny nose or headaches. After all, a person immediately loses 2 of the five senses – smell and taste.

Swelling of the face.

With inflammation of the sinus mucosa in a person, swelling of the cheeks and eyelids is observed. With a unilateral development of the disease, edema traditionally corresponds to the side of the lesion. Sometimes with sinusitis there are cracks and wounds at the entrance to the nose.

Runny nose.

Often, people suffering from sinusitis have purulent (yellow or green) discharge from the nose, which also has an unpleasant odor. But if the nose is very stuffy, then a runny nose with sinusitis may not be.

Temperature rise.

In acute sinusitis, there is an increase in temperature to 38 degrees and even higher. In a chronic disease, the temperature rises infrequently.

General malaise.

Patients often complain of fatigue, inability to concentrate, weakness. Often people suffering from sinusitis refuse food, their sleep is disturbed.


X-ray or computed tomography of the sinuses can confirm the diagnosis. When the diagnosis of sinusitis is confirmed, adequate therapy should be prescribed.


Carry out complex treatment, primarily aimed at eliminating the causes that support inflammation in the maxillary sinus (adenoids, deviated septum, bad teeth, etc.).

Effective washing of the maxillary sinus with disinfectant solutions (potassium permanganate, furacilin, rivanol). A positive effect is achieved when proteolytic enzymes are injected into the sinus, and then (after a preliminary study on the susceptibility of the flora) antibiotic solutions. Physiotherapeutic methods are widely used – UHF, solux, diathermy, inhalations.

In the absence of a positive result of conservative treatment, an operation is performed on the maxillary sinus.

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