Kaposi’s sarcoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma

Koposi’s sarcoma is a multiple malignant or benign tumor of poorly differentiated vascular tissue; more often occurs in men over the age of 60, with AIDS, immunosuppression.

Varieties

    • Painless (classic)
    • African (endemic in Central Africa)
    • HIV-associated (epidemic)
    • Koposi’s sarcoma, which develops with the use of immunosuppressants.

Etiology. Most likely, the infectious agent is the human herpes virus.

Risk factors

    • HIV infection
    • Living in endemic areas (Central Africa)
    • Immunosuppressive therapy
    • Transplantation followed by chemotherapy. Pathomorphology
    • Proliferation of atypical spindle cells
    • Vascular proliferation
    • Large hyperchromic nuclei
    • Perivascular clusters of spindle cells
    • Macrophages loaded with hemosiderin.

Clinical picture

    • Painless Koposi’s sarcoma
    • Multicentric reddish-bluish or purple skin tumors
    • Soft tumors
    • Possible itching in the affected area
    • In older men, the toes and lower legs are first affected.
    • African (endemic) Koposi’s sarcoma
    • Characterized by rapid tumor growth and aggressiveness
    • The skin, lymph nodes, or internal organs are usually affected.
    • HIV-associated Koposi’s sarcoma
    • Extensive lesions of the skin of the hands, face, trunk, and mucous membranes (rashes in the form of pink or red papules or plaques of a round or oval shape)
    • Damage to the lymph nodes
    • Damage to internal organs.

Research methods

    • Pathological examination of tissues
    • CT can detect damage to internal organs
    • Skin or lymph node biopsy
    • Testing for HIV infection.

Treatment:

Tactics of conducting

    • If Koposi’s sarcoma occurs during treatment with immunosuppressants, the drug will need to be discontinued or its dose reduced
    • The choice of treatment for HIV infection depends on the state of the immune system. In most cases, treatment does not prolong the life of the patient due to the addition of opportunistic infections. Surgery
    • For painless superficial lesions, freezing, fulguration, or electron beam radiotherapy is used; with inefficiency, local radiotherapy is indicated (1,000-2,000 rad)
    • Surgical removal of affected areas. Drug therapy – chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, vincristine), interferon (parenteral or local).

The prognosis is unfavorable for a disease associated with HIV infection.

Synonyms

  • Endotheliosarcoma
  • Multiple idiopathic hemorrhagic sarcoma
  • Koposi angioreticulosis
  • Koposi angiosarcomatosis
  • Koposi’s hemangiosarcoma
  • Koposi hemorrhagic sarcoma
  • Koposi multiple hemorrhagic sarcoma
  • Koposi teleangiectatic pseudosarcoma
  • Multiple pigmented sarcoma
  • Koposi’s disease
  • Pigmentary and telangiectatic sarcomatosis See also HIV infection and AIDS; tumor, radiation therapy; Tumor, markers; Tumor, methods of treatment, fig. 3-24, fig. 3—25 ICD
  • B21.0 HIV-induced disease with manifestations of Koposi’s sarcoma
  • C46 Koposi’s sarcoma

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