Varicose veins

Varicose veins are a disease in which the veins lose their elasticity, stretch and expand.

Venous valves act as locks: when blood passes through the valves, the lock closes and does not release it back. As soon as such a system begins to fail, the blood flows freely down and stagnates in the legs. As time passes, the congestion increases and interferes with the functioning of healthy valves, blood begins to enter the superficial veins that are right under the skin, they stretch and lose their shape. The veins swell and protrude.

Varicose veins are one of the independent diseases (which can be combined with other diseases of the veins or be their consequence), often have a progressive course, which cause irreversible changes in the saphenous veins, skin, muscles and bones. Visually characterized by the presence of dilated and tortuous veins on the foot, lower leg and thigh.

The causes of varicose veins are different:

  • as a result of insufficiency of the valvular apparatus of the superficial venous system;
  • mechanical obstruction to blood flow;
  • due to congenital weakness of the elements of the venous wall;
  • neuroendocrine disorders;
  • immunological disorders and allergic reactions.

According to statistics, up to 40% of the adult population of our country suffers from chronic diseases of the veins of the lower extremities. Varicose veins are the most common pathology among the population. Its complications in the form of diseases such as dermatitis, cellulitis, bleeding, thrombosis and trophic ulcers often lead to a long-term loss of work capacity, sometimes causing disability.

Varicose veins or varicose veins of the lower extremities are due to the fact that the veins cannot cope with the blood flow through them. It is obvious that the blood flows through the veins of the legs from the bottom up, that is, against the action of the force of gravity. This is achieved through several mechanisms: the pressure of blood from the arteries (the smallest contribution), the contraction of the muscles of the legs during movements (this acts as a pump), and the presence of valves in the veins that prevent the blood from flowing back (from top to bottom).

It is the inability of these valves to perform their function that causes a violation of venous blood flow, which leads to overstretching of the veins. An increase in the lumen of the vein, in turn, further worsens the operation of the valve, since it cannot close the lumen of this diameter. Downward flow of blood is intensified. That is a vicious circle.

Standing work is a risk factor for the development of varicose veins.

Symptoms of varicose veins of the legs: tortuous veins protruding above the surface of the skin of the legs and feet, pain in the legs, combined at the beginning with swelling, and then with skin changes.

Skin changes are initially expressed in dryness of the skin, its pigmentation (it darkens, acquires a brownish color in the form of spots). Later, so-called trophic disorders join in the form of poorly healing wounds such as eczema and even ulcers. The pains are more disturbing in the evenings or in the afternoon.

Varicose veins are within the competence of vascular surgeons, who decide how to treat the patient in this case. Currently, there are methods of treating varicose veins without surgery, however, it is most effective in the early stages of the development of varicose veins, when skin changes are not pronounced. In addition to drugs, in the early stages of the disease, bandaging the legs with elastic bandages and regular walking helps.

Symptoms and course of varicose veins

The veins translucent under the skin swell in the form of tortuous strands and knots. The skin above them is thinned, easily injured, and subsequently pigmented. In the future, with the development of varicose veins, edema and trophic ulcers may join. Slowing blood flow in dilated veins, mild trauma, susceptibility to inflammatory changes predisposes to thrombophlebitis.

Prevention of varicose veins

With non-cardinal expansion of varicose veins of the lower extremities, it is advisable to persistently carry out preventive measures for varicose veins: when sitting or standing, move periodically, give a dosed load on the muscles of the lower extremities, rise on toes, walk vigorously (you can on the spot). This contributes to the prevention of varicose veins, muscle contraction, improved blood circulation, increased venous outflow of blood.

The most common misconception: varicose veins are ugly knots of veins that protrude on the legs. In the early stages of the disease, there are no such frightening signs yet, but there are effective methods of treatment! And if the time for the use of sparing non-surgical methods is missed, then already within 30% of cases require surgical intervention. One of the main methods of treatment of varicose veins in many countries of the world is sclerotherapy of varicose veins.

Sclerotherapy is a method of removing dilated veins, which consists in the intravenous administration of special products – sclerosants. The affected vein, as it were, “sticks together” from the inside and stops working, blood flows through healthy veins. The procedure in experienced hands is safe and virtually painless. Sclerotherapy is performed on an outpatient basis, the patient does not drop out of normal life. Sclerotherapy sessions are held once a week. The duration of treatment depends on the stage and form of the disease. On average, 3-6 treatment sessions are required for each leg and 3 to 5 sclerosant injections per session.

A positive cosmetic result of the treatment is manifested in 2-8 weeks later in the next day of the procedure. In some cases, for a better cosmetic result, the intervals between sessions are increased to 3-10 weeks. After treatment with sclerotherapy, as a result of bloodless removal of varicose veins, blood flow through healthy veins improves, nutrition processes in tissues are restored, the symptoms of the disease disappear or significantly decrease.

The main conservative preventive measures include:

  • wearing compression stockings;
  • reception of venotonics, as well as their local use;
  • strict adherence to foot hygiene.

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