Name: Octadinum (Oktadin)
Indications for use:
Octadine is used as an antihypertensive (lowering blood pressure) agent. The drug has a strong hypotensive effect and, with the right doses, can cause a decrease in blood pressure in patients with hypertension (with a rise in blood pressure) at different stages, including severe forms with increased and persistent rise in pressure. Glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure).
The sympatholytic effect of octadine is due to the fact that it selectively accumulates in the granules of sympathetic nerve endings and displaces the adrenergic mediator, norepinephrine, from them. Part of the released mediator reaches the postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors and has a short-term pressor (increasing blood pressure) effect, but the main part of the mediator is destroyed. As a result of the depletion of norepinephrine reserves in adrenergic endings, the transmission of nervous excitation to them is weakened or stopped. Violation of the transmission of nervous excitation is also associated with the fact that, accumulating in the nerve endings, octadin has a local anesthetic (in this case, the termination of their function) effect on them. Octadine has a two-phase effect on the cardiovascular system: first, a transient pressor reaction develops (a temporary rise in blood pressure) with tachycardia (rapid heartbeats) and an increase in cardiac output, then a progressive decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure occurs (pressure in the blood expulsion phase and in the filling phase), heart rate, minute volume decrease and pulse pressure, and later (after 2-3 days after oral / through the mouth / intake), persistent hypotension (lowering blood pressure) occurs. The initial pressor response may last up to several hours. With prolonged use of the product, the hypotensive (lowering blood pressure) effect may decrease due to a gradual increase in cardiac output. In the form of eye drops, the product causes moderate miosis (constriction of the pupil), facilitates the outflow of aqueous humor, reduces its production and lowers intraocular pressure. Unlike cholinomimetic substances (pilocarpine, etc.), octadine does not affect accommodation (visual perception), less disturbs visual acuity and the ability of patients to see in poor lighting.
Octadinum (Oktadin) method of administration and dosage:
For the treatment of hypertension (persistent rise in blood pressure), octadin is prescribed orally in the form of tablets. Doses should be selected individually depending on the stage of the disease, the general condition of the patient, the tolerance of the product, etc. Start with a small dose – 0.01-0.0125 g (10-12.5 mg) 1 time every day, then gradually dose usually increase weekly by 10-12.5 mg (up to 0.05-0.075 g every day). Smaller doses are usually sufficient: in severe cases, up to 60 mg per day, in milder cases, 10-30 mg. Take the daily dose in 1 dose (in the morning). After achieving a therapeutic effect, a maintenance dose is selected individually. Treatment is carried out for a long time. It is preferable to start treatment with octadin in a hospital (hospital). In outpatient settings, the product should be used with caution, under constant medical supervision. It is necessary to take into account the possibility of individual fluctuations in the sensitivity of patients to octadine. For elderly and senile patients, the product is prescribed in smaller doses, starting with 6.25 mg (1/4 tablet) 1 time per day, then gradually increasing the dose by 6.25 mg to a daily dose of 25-50 mg.
In ophthalmic practice, octadin is sometimes used for instillation into the conjunctival sac (the cavity between the back surface of the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eyeball) (1-2 drops of a 5% solution 1-2 times every day) in primary open-angle glaucoma.
Octadinum (Oktadin) contraindications:
Severe atherosclerosis, acute cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, hypotension (low blood pressure), severe renal insufficiency. Octadine should not be prescribed for pheochromocytoma (tumors of the adrenal glands), since at the beginning of the action the product can cause an increase in blood pressure. It is not necessary to prescribe oktadine simultaneously with tricyclic antidepressants, chlorpromazine, ephedrine. In patients treated with MAO inhibitors, it is necessary to take a break of 2 weeks before taking octadine. Patients undergoing surgery should stop taking the product a few days before surgery.
In patients with glaucoma with a closed and narrow chamber angle, octadins are not used, since an increase in ophthalmotonus (pressure exerted by the contents of the eyeball on its outer shell) may occur. In acute glaucoma, the product is not indicated.
Octadinum (Octadine) side effects:
When using octadine, side effects may occur: dizziness, general weakness, weakness (a sharp decrease in the range of motion), nausea, vomiting, swelling of the nasal mucosa, pain in the ear gland, diarrhea (due to increased peristalsis / undulating movements / intestines due to for inhibiting the influence of sympathetic innervation), fluid retention by tissues. Daily fluctuations in blood pressure may increase. The hypotensive effect of the product is often accompanied by the development of orthostatic hypotension (a decrease in blood pressure when moving from a horizontal to a vertical position), in some cases orthostatic collapse is possible (a sharp drop in blood pressure when moving from a horizontal to a vertical position), especially in the first weeks of treatment. To prevent collapse, patients should be in a horizontal position for 1/2-2 hours after taking the product and slowly move from a lying position to a standing position; in some cases it is necessary to reduce the dose.
Ismelin, Guanethidine sulfate, Abapressin, Declidine, Guanisol, Ipoktal, Iporal, Isobarin, Antipres, Azetidine, Eutenzol, Guanexil, Ipoguanine, Vizutensil, Sanotensin, Oftalmotonil, Octatenzin, Pressedin.