Chamomile and odorous

Name: Chamomile and odorous

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.)

Chamomile is an annual herb from the Compositae family. Other names: dog chamomile, mother liquor, mother grass


Annual herbaceous fragrant plant 15-40 cm in height. The stem is branched from the base, seated with doubly pinnate leaves with very thin, almost filiform lobules ending in a soft point. Flowers in medium-sized baskets located at the end of the stem and its branches on rather long peduncles. The marginal reed flowers are white, the median tubular flowers are yellow (the height and diameter of the basket without reed flowers is 4-8 mm). All flowers sit on a bare, spherical or narrow-conical (depending on the flowering phase), inside a hollow receptacle; tiled wrap. Baskets bloom gradually, starting with reed flowers and ending with median tubular ones. At first, the tongues are directed upwards, then they stand horizontally and descend towards the end of flowering, at this time the lower tubular flowers begin to ripen and fall off after the formation of fruits. The fruits are slightly curved, whitish achenes up to 1 mm long. Chamomile blooms from May to autumn. Chamomile is found on fallow lands, wastelands, near residential areas, along roads, but does not form large thickets. The second type of chamomile is more widespread – Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter. – odorous chamomile (chamomile).

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.)

Chamomile odorous or chamomile (Matricaria matricarioides) An annual herbaceous plant 10-40 cm tall with a strong odor. The stem is rather thick, branched from the base, seated with double pinnate leaves, but their lobules are somewhat wider and shorter. Flower baskets, unlike chamomile, sit on short, thickened flower stalks under the baskets, which makes collection very difficult, since parts of the leaves are also torn off along the way. It differs from other types of chamomile in the absence of white reed flowers in the baskets, the presence of numerous tubular greenish-yellow flowers sitting on a convex conical, naked, hollow receptacle inside. Achenes are cylindrical, up to 1.5 mm long. It blooms from May to September. The fragrant chamomile grows in vast thickets on the outskirts of residential areas, along roads, in wastelands.

Harvesting, description of raw materials:

For medicinal purposes, chamomile flowers are used – Flores Chamomillae. Harvest at the beginning of flowering baskets of chamomile at the time of the horizontal arrangement of reed flowers. The inflorescences are cut off by hand, often combing the plants with outstretched fingers and cutting off the remnants of the receptacle. Scoops with metal combs are very convenient for collecting, increasing the productivity of the harvest. Fragrant chamomile baskets are harvested separately also at the beginning of flowering, tearing them off by hand; 4-5 collections are made during the summer. Before drying, baskets with longish peduncles or stems are removed, leaves are selected. Dry in the shade, most likely in air dryers, the temperature is maintained within the range of 40-50 ° C, but heat drying is desirable. Flowers are scattered in an even layer at the rate of 1 kg per 1 m2. To avoid crushing, chamomile should not be stirred and overdried. Therefore, when the receptacle becomes dry, the drying is completed. The raw material consists of whole baskets with short peduncles. Their length should not exceed 3 cm for pharmacy chamomile, and 1 cm for odorous chamomile. Both chamomiles have a strong aromatic odor and a spicy bitter taste.

Contains active substances:

Chamomile flowers contain up to 0.8% blue essential oil, which contains chamazulene and other sesquiterpenes and some acids; Chamazulene has a powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, as well as a diaphoretic and disinfectant. In flower baskets, in addition, there are the flavonoid appin and the glycoside herniarin, which has an antispasmodic effect; lactone-matricarin, salicylic acid, mucus, bitter and other substances.

Medicinal use:

It is used orally for intestinal spasms, flatulence, diarrhea and as a diaphoretic, externally as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent for rinses, lotions, baths and enemas. In folk medicine, a decoction of chamomile baskets is used for gastric diseases, for poultices, lotions, rinses; give newborns a few drops to drink. Chamomile chamomile has the same use, in addition, a decoction of flower baskets is given to drink to young children to cleanse the stomach, they drink after childbirth, with gastritis, diarrhea, from worms and bleeding, with colds, they wash their hair with a decoction .

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