Fennel ordinary

Diseases and effects: diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, spastic colitis, intestinal colic, diseases of the upper respiratory tract, dry bronchitis, spasms of the stomach and intestines, chronic coronary insufficiency, hypertension, flatulence, kidney stone disease, cholelithiasis.

Active ingredients: anethole, fenchone, pinene, methylchavicol, camphene, phellandrene, oleic acid, linolenic acid, petroselinic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, anisic acid, ketone, aldehyde.

Harvest time:  September — SeptemberBotanical description\rPlant\rChemical composition\rPharmacological properties\rUse in medicine\rDosage forms, method of administration and doses\r\r

Botanical description of common fennel 


Perennial (most often biennial) herbaceous plant up to 150-180 cm high. Family: Umbelliferae (Apiaceae).\r

Stem  – cylindrical, branched.\r

The leaves are arranged alternately, vaginal; the lower ones are cuttings, pinnately dissected, with narrow linear particles, the upper ones are almost sessile.\r

The flowers are small, the corolla is yellow.\r

The fruits  are cylindrical, greenish-brown two-seeded seeds up to 8 mm long. After maturation, they easily break up into 2 semi-fruits, each of which has 5 ribs: 3 – on the convex side, 2 – on the sides, essential oil tubules are noticeable.\r

Common fennel blooms in July-August, the fruits ripen in September.\r

Common fennel harvest 


In the wild, common fennel (dill pharmacy) is not often encountered. Mainly cultivated. Distribution areas – occurs in the wild in the Crimea and the Caucasus.\r

It is cultivated as an essential oil and medicinal plant in the Krasnodar Territory and Belarus, in the south-west of Ukraine and in the North Caucasus. It is bred in places with a humid, but rather warm climate, especially on calcareous soils, in open areas. Medicinal raw materials are the fruits of common fennel, as well as the fruits of garden dill (Anetum graveolens L.). They use whole or split into individual seeds, as well as essential oil, which is extracted from the fruit.\r

Fennel fruits are harvested when they become hard, acquire a greenish-brown color. Dry in the shade with good ventilation and frequent stirring. Dried fennel seeds taste sweetish, spicy, the smell is peculiar, spicy, fragrant.\r

The chemical composition of fennel ordinary 


Fennel fruits contain an essential oil (4-6%), consisting of anethole (up to 50-60%), fenchon, pinene, methylchavicol, camphene, phellandrene and a number of other terpenes, as well as fatty oil, which includes oleic, linolenic, petroselinic , stearic and palmitic acids. The fruits also contain traces of anisic acid, anisic ketone and aldehyde.\r

Pharmacological properties of fennel ordinary 


According to the chemical composition and pharmacological properties, the fruits of fennel and dill are very close. At least, no significant differences can be established in terms of the effect of products from these plants on the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Galenic products from the fruits of dill (fennel) and garden increase the secretion of the digestive glands, have a choleretic, antispasmodic and diuretic effect, also regulate intestinal motor activity, and have some antibacterial effect.\r

In addition, fennel fruits have a calming effect on the central nervous system. The fruits of dill and the product “Anetin” isolated from them have an advantage in antispasmodic activity, give a distinct coronary dilating and peripheral vasodilating effect.\r

Medicinal uses of fennel 


Even in ancient times, fennel was prescribed as an expectorant and carminative. In folk medicine, the fruits of the plant were used as a diuretic and expectorant, as well as to improve digestion. In addition, it has long been used for kidney stone and cholelithiasis.\r

Galenic products of fennel fruits are used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by intestinal spasms, flatulence, dyspepsia, intestinal pain (spastic colitis, intestinal colic in babies, etc.). Fennel preparations in combination with other medicinal plants are prescribed for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, dry bronchitis to thin sputum and improve its expectoration.\r

Infusions and decoctions of dill are also prescribed for appetite and digestion, elimination of spasms of the stomach and intestines, to obtain a carminative effect, increase the secretion of gastric and pancreatic juice and bile secretion. There are observations about the calming effect of dill herbal products in a number of patients, as well as its pronounced expectorant properties and the likelihood of increasing lactation in nursing mothers. Anetine and dill herb infusion are also used in mild forms of chronic coronary insufficiency, in the initial stages of hypertension.\r

Dosage forms of fennel ordinary, method of administration and doses 


Infusion of fennel fruits (Infusum fruct. Foeniculi): 10 g (2 tablespoons) of fruits are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml (1 cup) of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) for 15 minutes, cool 45 minutes at room temperature, filter, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Taken warm, 1/3 cup 3-4 times every day as an expectorant and carminative.\r

Available in packs of 100 g. Fruits are stored in a dry, cool place.\r

Fennel oil (Oleum Foeniculi). Voloshsky dill oil. Essential oil obtained by distillation of crushed fennel fruit. Contains up to 60% anethole. Transparent, colorless or yellowish, easily mobile liquid with a strong peculiar odor reminiscent of the smell of anise. The taste is first bitter camphor, then sweetish. It is used for flatulence and as an expectorant (5 drops 2-3 times every day), sometimes to improve the taste in mixtures.\r

Dill water (Aqua Foeniculi). Ingredients: 1 part dill oil to 1000 parts water. Colorless, transparent or slightly turbid liquid with a peculiar aromatic smell, sweetish, and then bitter taste, neutral reaction. Apply 1 teaspoon 2-3 times every day as a laxative, with flatulence and as an expectorant.

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