Rosehip cinnamon

Other names: Wild Rose, Thorn Color, Svoborina, Chiporas, Shipchik, Forest Shipok, Terpiguzka, Sverbiguzka.

Diseases and effects: hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis C and P, acute and chronic infections, atherosclerosis, nephritis, acute and chronic diseases of the liver, intestines, peptic ulcer, hemorrhagic diathesis, hemophilia, bleeding, overdose of anticoagulants, intoxication with poisons and radioactive substances, hyperthyroidism, insufficiency adrenal glands, traumatic shock, pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiectasis, hemorrhagic retinitis, choroiditis, vitreous hemorrhage, bronchial asthma, cholecystitis, hepatitis, gingivitis, stomatitis, nipple cracks, bedsores, trophic ulcers of the lower leg, dermatosis.

Active substances: sugars, pectins, tannins, organic acids (malic, citric, oleic, linoleic, linolenic), falavonides (quercetin, isoquercetin, kemiferol, rubixanthin, lycopene, astragalin, hyperoside, kempferol 3-glucoside, etc.), fatty oil, ascorbic acid, vitamins B1, B2, P and PP, K, carotene (provitamin A), catechins, lycopene, xanthophyll, arumin, tocopherols (vitamin E), salts of iron, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium.

Collection time:  August – October Botanical description \ rDistribution and habitats \ rBiological features \ rProcessing rules \ rChemical composition \ rPharmacological properties \ rUse in medicine \ rDosage forms, method of administration and doses \ rContraindications \ rCultivation techniques of wild rose \ rGrowing in home gardens \r\ r

There are many types of rose hips. More than 40 species grow only in the South of Ukraine. In many ways, they are similar, so here will be presented generalizing material based on the description of Cinnamon Rosehip (Rosa cinnamomea L.)\r

Botanical description of wild rose 

\rTall (1.5-3 m), perennial shrub of the Rosaceae family (Rosaceae).\r

The root system is powerful. Vertical thick roots go to a depth of 2-3 m, horizontal – highly branched are in the soil layer from 5 to 40 cm.\r

The stems are vertical, often arcuate, curved, in the lower part covered with needle sickle-shaped spines. The thorns of the main shoots are rare, on flower-bearing ones – plentiful. The branches are woody, green or red-brown.\r

The leaves are spiral, pinnate with stipules adhering to the petiole, glabrous, sometimes with sparse hairs, green or bluish, 8-10 cm long.\r

The flowers are regular, collected in paniculate or corymbose inflorescences, sometimes solitary, bisexual. Petals 5 – white-pink, white or hot pink. Sepals up to 20-25 mm, broadly lanceolate, falling early, with dense pinnate appendages, glabrous above, below with dense short hairs, after flowering pressed to the lower part of the fruit.\r

The fruit  is a hypanthium, orange-red, broadly oval, less often spherical or elongated oval, appears due to the growth of the receptacle. The inner walls of the fruit are densely dotted with short, hard hairs, among which are numerous hard fruitlets.\r

Blooms from late May to July, fruits ripen in September-October.\r

Distribution and habitats of wild rose 

\rRosehip grows in the steppe part along the slopes of beams, in river basins, on the banks of streams, within reservoirs. Most often found on all kinds of slopes, in sparse forests, clearings, edges, mountain meadows, among shrubs. Often forms small clumps. In Crimea, the most significant thickets are located in the foothill and mountain zones, found on Tarkhankut and coastal areas of the Kerch Peninsula.\r

Rosehip is one of the main plants for the production of multivitamins and other substances of great importance for health. However, even large harvests do not satisfy the needs of medicine, especially since the stocks of wild growth are gradually declining. Therefore, it became necessary to grow varietal rose hips in an industrial way.\r

Biological features of wild rose 

\rRosehip is a heat-loving and light-loving plant, tolerates drought well, grows on almost all types of soil. However, a high fruit yield can only be obtained with good moisture supply on nutrient-rich soils. It grows poorly on waterlogged, saline and highly carbonate soils with a CaCO 3 content in the upper horizon of 56-60%.\r

Observations show that plants live and bear fruit for more than 25 years, form numerous root offspring, therefore, in the wild, clump growth is characteristic. Rosehip annually forms new branches and is easily restored after mowing or death of the aerial part.\r

Enhanced growth of branches is noted in the first 2 years, abundant fruiting – at 3-6 years of life, then the yield decreases, by 7-8 years the stems of the branches die off and must be removed.\r

Rosehip propagates by seeds, root offspring and rooted cuttings. Due to the fact that this is a monocotyledonous plant cross-pollinated by insects, splitting occurs during seed propagation. Plants grow diverse in morphological and other characteristics. Therefore, varietal rose hips are propagated only vegetatively.\r

Rosehip Harvesting Rules 

\rMedicinal raw materials are raw, dried and peeled from sepals and stalks, the fruits of various types of wild rose, from orange-yellow to brownish-red. The shape of the fruit can be spherical, ovoid, oval or elongated – spindle-shaped, 0.7-3 cm long, 0.6-1.7 cm in diameter. The fruits consist of a fleshy receptacle and fruitlets enclosed inside – nuts. Dried fruits have hard walls, the outer surface is wrinkled, shiny or matte. Inside, the fruits are covered with long, stiff hairs. Raw materials are odorless, sour-sweet, slightly astringent in taste and should contain no more than 15% moisture; total ash – no more than 3%; pieces of twigs, sepals, stalks – no more than 2%; burnt, blackened, pest-damaged fruits – no more than 1%; shredded parts, passing through a sieve with holes with a diameter of 3 mm – no more than 3%; organic and mineral impurities of each – no more than 0.5%.\r

Harvest time from the end of August until the onset of frost. Frozen fruits are not suitable for drying, as they lose vitamin C when thawed. However, factories can process frozen fruits into syrups, juices.\r

The collection is carried out manually, in thick gloves, a wire hook is used to tilt the branches to a position convenient for picking the fruit. When harvesting, it is not necessary to remove the sepals from the fruits, since without them the fruits quickly deteriorate and become moldy. The sepals are removed after drying. The fruits are dried in well-ventilated rooms, in attics, laying out in a thin layer and periodically mixing, in dryers, ovens at a temperature of 80-90 ° C, laying out the fruits on special sieves with a stretched metal mesh with small holes. For drying large batches of wild rose, special dryers are equipped with hot air supply from heat generators of various types. Hot air is supplied from below under the slatted floor. The room or chamber in which drying is carried out must be closed, in the upper part a window will be necessary for periodic air ventilation, passed through the layer of wild rose. Normally dried fruits should break apart in the fingers, but not grind into powder. Shelf life 2 years.\r

The chemical composition of wild rose 

\rThe content of biologically active substances in wild rose varies greatly depending on the areas and places of growth.\r

For example, according to the Crimean Zonal Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal Plants, the content of ascorbic acid in dry fruits ranges from 0.2 to 1.5% in terms of absolutely dry matter, but basically it is at the level of 0.3-0.5%. And at the same time, the fruits of high-vitamin varieties contain 3-3.5% of vitamin C.\r

Rose hips are rich in vitamins P, B 1 , B 2 , K, E. They contain from 0.01 to 0.06% carotene, sugar – up to 8%, acids – up to 3.6%, flavonoids: astragalin, hyperoside, quercetin , isoquercitrin, 3-glucoside kempferol. In addition, rose hips contain catechins, lycopene, xanthophyll, arumin.\r

Rosehip seeds contain up to 9% fatty oil.\r

Pharmacological properties of wild rose 

\rPreparations from rose hips have a variety of pharmacological activity, depending mainly on the content of the vitamin complex in the plant. Ascorbic acid essentially determines the biological activity of the fruits of the plant. Rose hips and medicinal products from them have an antiscorbutic effect, significantly increase the redox processes in the body, since ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, formed during its oxidation, participate in the oxidative deamination of aromatic amino acids, activate a number of enzyme systems, stabilize the content of adrenaline and others. catecholamines, stimulate the body’s resistance to harmful environmental influences, infections and other adverse factors.\r

Rosehip products also stimulate and improve metabolic processes, enhance hormone synthesis and tissue regeneration and capillary permeability, and have anti-inflammatory properties.\r

In addition, at present, the anti-sclerotic effect of ascorbic acid has been experimentally proven, which manifests itself in lowering the concentration of cholesterol in the blood and in inhibiting the deposition of atheromatous masses in the walls of blood vessels.\r

The listed pharmacological properties of rosehip products are potentiated due to the combined content of ascorbic acid and rutin (vitamin P) in the fruits of the plant. The presence of vitamins B, E and carotene in the fruits of the plant gives this plant vitamin complex complete completion, i.e. rose hip phytoproducts acquire the missing links of the stimulating effect on the anaerobic decarboxylation of pyruvic acid with subsequent activation of enzyme systems. Rose hips, in addition, enhance tissue regeneration, hormone synthesis, favorably affect carbohydrate metabolism, blood clotting, vascular permeability, etc. They also have anti-inflammatory, choleretic and diuretic properties.\r

The use of wild rose in medicine 

\rRosehip preparations are prescribed for the prevention and treatment of hypo- and avitaminosis C and P, which are manifested by a violation of the permeability of the walls of blood vessels, a decrease in the body’s resistance to harmful endogenous and exogenous factors of influence. Ascorbic acid deficiency is observed in people experiencing prolonged physical and neuropsychic stress. This applies to patients who have undergone surgery, trauma, pregnant women and women during lactation.\r

Rosehip preparations are prescribed for acute and chronic infections, atherosclerosis, nephritis, acute and chronic diseases of the liver, intestines, peptic ulcer, hemorrhagic diathesis, hemophilia, bleeding (pulmonary, uterine), overdose of anticoagulants, intoxication with poisons and radioactive substances, hyperthyroidism and adrenal insufficiency, traumatic shock.\r

Rosehip is used for pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiectasis. Vitamins contained in rose hips increase the protective properties of the sick organism and facilitate the course of the disease.\r

Since ascorbic acid plays an important role in the nutrition of human eye tissues (especially a lot of ascorbic acid is found in the lens of the eye, its content decreases with the development of cataracts), rosehip products are effective in the treatment of eye diseases caused by vascular dilation (hemorrhagic retinitis, choroiditis, vitreous hemorrhage ).\r

Rose hips are also used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, the therapeutic effect is based on a decrease in the content of fibrinogen and globulins in the blood serum, the number of which increases in response to the intake of foreign proteins. The choleretic properties of wild rose are used for cholecystitis, hepatitis.\r

From the seeds of rose hips, an oil is obtained that contains unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Rosehip oil is used externally as a wound healing agent in dental practice for gingivitis, stomatitis, as well as for cracked nipples, bedsores, trophic ulcers of the lower leg, and dermatosis. With nonspecific ulcerative colitis, it is prescribed in the form of microclysters.\r

There is a positive experience in the use of rosehip infusion and plants with a stimulating effect (Eleutherococcus, Leuzea, Rhodiola Rosea, etc.) in industrial workshops with difficult and harmful working conditions. The incidence of infectious diseases decreased, the well-being of workers improved, and labor productivity increased.\r

Dosage forms of wild rose, method of administration and doses 

\rInfusion of rose hips (Infusum fructuum Rosae): 10 g (1 tablespoon) of the fruit is placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml (1 glass) of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, filter. The remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days.\r

Apply 1/2 cup 2-3 times every day after meals as a vitamin remedy. Available in packs of 100 g. Fruits are stored in a dry, cool place.\r

Holosas . Syrup prepared on a condensed water extract of rose hips and sugar. Thick, syrupy liquid of dark brown color, sweet and sour taste, peculiar smell. It is prescribed for cholecystitis, hepatitis, 1 teaspoon per reception 2-3 times every day, for children – 1/4 teaspoon 2-3 times every day.\r

Produced in bottles of 250 ml. Store in a dry, cool place.\r

Rosehip syrup . Produced by the medical industry with an ascorbic acid content of 5 mg per 1 ml.\r

Tea from rose hips and blackcurrant berries . Pour 20 g of a mixture of fruits in equal parts with two glasses of boiling water, leave for 1 hour, filter, add sugar, take 1/2 cup 3-4 times every day.\r

Tea from rose hips and rowan berries . The fruits are mixed in equal parts. Pour 2 teaspoons of the mixture with two glasses of boiling water, leave for 1 hour, filter, add sugar to taste, take 1/2 cup – 3-4 times every day.\r

Rosehip tea with raisins . Raisins are washed, crushed, poured with boiling water (at a ratio of 1: 100 ml), boiled for 10 minutes, squeezed, filtered, add the same amount of rosehip infusion, take 1/2 cup several times every day.\r

Rosehip oil (Oleum Rosae) is a brown oily liquid with a bitter taste and a specific smell. Available in bottles of 100 and 250 ml. Store in a place protected from light at a temperature not exceeding +20 ° C.\r

Oil is used for shallow cracks and abrasions of the nipples in lactating women, trophic ulcers, dermatosis, pressure ulcers. For external use, it will be necessary to moisten gauze pads with oil and apply them to the affected areas of the skin. Rosehip oil is used in enemas in the treatment of nonspecific ulcerative colitis, 50 ml every day or every other day (course – 15-30 enemas).\r

Carotolin  is an oily extract of carotenoids from the pulp of rose hips. Used to treat trophic ulcers, eczema. Outwardly, wipes moistened with the product are applied 1-2 times every day and covered with wax paper.\r

In addition to the traditional methods of preparing the infusion at home, it can be prepared as follows: 40-50 berries are poured into 1 liter of boiling water in a thermos for 7-8 hours. If you need to prepare a drink quickly, then the berries are crushed and poured with boiling water, at the rate of 10 berries per 1 glass. For taste, you can add honey, sugar to the infusion.\r

People believe that the steam of rosehip leaves, like tea, has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract: it improves the motor function of the intestine, pain in the stomach disappears, and it contributes to better digestion of food in the stomach. Drink tea without dosage.\r

A decoction of wild rose roots , dug out in late autumn, is used by folk healers to treat urolithiasis and rheumatism. To prepare a decoction, 2 tablespoons of crushed roots are poured into 200 ml of water, boiled for 15 minutes and infused for 45 minutes. Drink a decoction of 1 glass 3 times every day for a week or more.\r

Rosehip flowers are successfully used for lotions for eye diseases and rinses for sore throats and other diseases. This product is prepared by long-term boiling of 100 g of flowers in one glass of boiling water.\r

Still not knowing that rose hips are rich in vitamins, people in ancient times used them as an antiscorbutic agent.\r

Rosehip liquor is often prepared at home : a glass of fruit is crushed and mixed with a glass of sugar, poured with two glasses of vodka, insisted for 5 days in a warm place, added two more glasses of vodka and insisted for another 5 days. After that, filter, squeeze and drink after eating 15-20 g twice every day. It is believed that all rosehip products are effective in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, intestines, liver, stomach, scurvy, childbirth and tuberculosis.\r

Fresh fruits are used to prepare vitamin paste, petals ground with sugar, petal syrup, jam from peeled seeds and hairs of the pulp of large-fruited rose hips. The seeds are sometimes used to make a coffee drink with a pleasant aroma.\r

Rosehip contraindications 

\rContraindications to the regular use of rosehip products are diseases of the blood vessels (varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, etc.).\r

Rosehip cultivation techniques 

\rRosehip plantations are used to obtain fruits 15-25 years old, therefore, based on biological and economic features, it is advisable to choose flat areas or gentle slopes, river valleys or irrigated areas.\r

Pre-planting soil preparation begins immediately after harvesting the predecessor. The field is disked, then organic fertilizers of 100-130 t/ha and mineral fertilizers N 60 P 120 K 60 are applied . Plowing is carried out with a plantation plow to a depth of 40 cm, and if soil conditions allow, to 60 cm. Then the surface of the site is leveled and until late autumn it will be necessary to cultivate the soil with cultivators, preventing weeds from growing. If the field prepared for planting is not littered with perennial weeds, planting can be carried out in the spring. In the presence of such weeds, it will be necessary to keep the site for another season under clean fallow, and plant it in the fall or spring of next year.\r

Before planting, the field is divided into blocks of 4-5 hectares in size, roads are left between them and across them. With this method of soil preparation, rosehip seedlings can be planted with forest planters, with row spacing of 3 m, a distance of 1–1.5 m is maintained between bushes in rows.\r

A more promising way of laying plantations has been developed. After plowing and leveling the plantation, furrows up to 40 cm deep are cut after 3 meters, then humus 60-80 t / ha is introduced into them and subsequently closed with a ditch leveler. In autumn, seedlings are planted exactly along the trench. If it was not possible to apply organic fertilizers for plowing or in trenches, planting is carried out in holes using a pit digger with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of at least 40 cm. 0.2 kg of granulated superphosphate, 10 kg of unripened dry manure are poured into them at the bottom and mixed with the ground . Replanting of non-rooted bushes is traditionally carried out in the fall of next year.\r

For the creation of industrial plantations recommended varieties: “Vitamin VNIVI”, “Vorontsosky-1”, “Vorontsosky-3”.\r

Varietal planting material is obtained by growing rhizomatous offspring and annual green cuttings rooted in a fogging plant. Planting is carried out with well-developed 2-year-old seedlings.\r

In the spring, they begin to take care of the plantings. It consists in carrying out, if necessary, manual weeding, loosening of row spacing and, in the dry season, irrigation. From the second year of vegetation, bushes are formed, i.e. create full-fledged vigorous, well-branched branches. To this end, weak branches are regularly pruned, the remaining ones are given the correct spatial arrangement. Pruning is carried out in autumn or spring before the start of sap flow. In the fourth year, the bushes enter full fruiting and their formation ends, they continue to cut out unproductive and dead branches only annually. Instead, they form new ones – from the shoots of renewal. After 5-6 years of fruiting, rosehip plantations are rejuvenated by cutting the branches at the soil level. So,

To obtain large and regular yields annually, twice during the growing season, the wild rose will need to be fed with complex mineral fertilizers, applying them between rows to a depth of 18–20 cm. are applied, phosphorus fertilizers are applied at 40 kg / ha of the active substance, and only with a low content of potassium in the soil, potash fertilizers are applied in the same dose as phosphorus ones.\r

Fruits are harvested when they turn orange or red. The fruits are harvested by hand, but later they began to use specially made machines – MPSh-1.\r

Harvested fruits will need to be dried quickly. You can store raw fruits for no more than 2 days with a layer of no more than 5-6 cm. With slow drying, the quality of fruits deteriorates, and a significant part of vitamin C is lost. To avoid large losses of vitamins, rose hips are dried in dryers with artificial air heating at a temperature of 80-90 ° C. Sun drying significantly reduces the content of nutrients. After drying, the fruits are sorted and packed in bags made of multilayer paper or fabric.\r

The yield of fruits in the fourth year of life is 6-8 centners / ha, and in the future – 18-20 centners / ha of fresh fruits. When irrigated, the yield increases, and the plants enter the fruiting period a year earlier.\r

Cultivation of wild rose in personal plots 

\rThere are no plants equal to rose hips in terms of richness and quantity of biologically active substances, especially vitamin C. To meet the daily human need for vitamins, only three or four fruits of high-vitamin varieties are enough. Having several bushes of this plant in your garden, you will provide the whole family with a yearly need for vitamins. Rosehip is decorative, beautiful during flowering and fruiting, can serve as a green hedge.\r

You can grow the same varieties at home as on industrial plantations, but we want to draw your attention to such varieties: “Large-fruited VNIVI”, “Thornless” (very convenient for manual harvesting), the Yubileyny variety is especially beautiful. It is characterized by semi-creeping branches, beautiful flowers, red, rounded, large (3-3.5 cm in diameter) fleshy fruits. This variety can be an authentic decoration for your yard.\r

To get plentiful regular crops, you need to choose and prepare the right place for planting. A well-lit area is better and plant with a distance of 3 × 1.5 or 3 × 3. When digging the soil, select the rhizomes of perennial weeds, prepare planting holes and apply fertilizer as in industrial planting. Before planting, cut the branches of seedlings into 2-3 buds, straighten the roots in the pit, sprinkle with earth, compact. In this case, the root neck of the seedling must be 5-7 cm below the soil level. After planting, water and mulch with sawdust, peat or other material suitable for this purpose.\r

For good fruiting, you need to have several varieties of this plant with a simultaneous flowering period. It is better to plant wild rose in autumn or early spring, but in exceptional cases it tolerates summer transplants well with regular watering.\r

Care of the bushes consists in keeping the soil in a loose and weed-free state, watering and annual fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers. For this purpose, humus (2-2.5 kg / m 2 ), superphosphate (200-300 g / m 2 ), ammonium nitrate (100-150 g / m 2 ) are used. But it is best to feed with slurry diluted with water (1: 3) or fermented chicken manure (1: 10). Every year, in the fall, remove diseased, unproductive or withered branches and excess rhizomatous offspring.\r

With good care, the wild rose will begin to bear fruit from 30% of its growing season, annually you will receive 2-4 kg of fresh fruit from one bush.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *