Dandelion officinalis

Other names: Common Dandelion, Bagels, Babki, Wild Euphorbia, Letyuchki, Chichik.

Diseases and effects: cholecystitis, hepatocholecystitis, anacid gastritis, constipation, liver disease, gallbladder disease, renal colic, gout, furunculosis, acne, skin rashes, calluses, warts, beriberi, anemia, metabolic diseases of the joints.

Active substances: taraxerol, taraxisterol, androsterol, taraxacin, sterols, choline, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, rubber, resins, wax, inulin, fatty oil, essential oil, proteins, tannins, olanolic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, malic acid, mineral salts, alcohols, flavonoids, vitamin C, vitamin B, vitamin P, provitamin A, choline, asparagine, iron salts, potassium salts, phosphorus salts.

 Harvest time: April – April, September – October

Botanical description of dandelion officinalis 


Dandelion officinalis is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Compositae (Asteraceae) family, up to 50 cm high.\r

The root is fleshy, up to 60 cm long and up to 2 cm in diameter.\r

Leaves in the rosette are pressed to the soil or ascending, oblanceolate, pectate-incised, sometimes coarsely serrated.\r

Flower arrows are fistulate, leafless, and in the upper part are cobweb-fluffy.\r

The flowers are bright yellow, reed, five-toothed, collected in large baskets.\r

The fruits are grayish-brown with long thin tufts (achene with a chubik), which form a grayish-white fluffy ball after ripening. The fruits are scattered through the air from a light breeze.\r

Flowering in April-July, fruiting in May-August. Milky juice is found in all parts of the plant.\r

Dandelion is the most common plant in the world.\r

Distribution of dandelion officinalis 


Dandelion officinalis grows in meadows, fields, gardens, landfills, along roads. Usually, dandelion grows in places with disturbed natural vegetation, on slightly sodded soils, especially near housing. Under these conditions, it does not often form thickets. Often found in forest clearings and edges, along forest roadsides, along roadside ditches, on eroded mountain slopes, less often in forest clearings, clearings and clearings. On meadows disturbed by plowing and grazing, dandelion is not abundant and grows mainly only in floodplains.\r

Distribution areas – the entire territory of the CIS, with the exception of the Far North. The main harvesting is traditionally carried out in the forest-steppe regions.\r

Chemical composition description of dandelion officinalis 


The roots of the plant contain triterpene compounds (taraxerol, taraxisterol, androsterol, etc.), taraxacin glycoside, sterols, choline, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, rubber (up to 3%), resins, wax, inulin (up to 24%), fatty and essential oils. , protein and tannins, organic acids (olanolic, linoleic, palmitic, malic, etc.). In addition, dandelion roots contain mineral salts, alcohols and flavonoids.\r

Dandelion leaves contain a complex of vitamins C, B, P, provitamin A, choline, asparagine, salts of iron, potassium, phosphorus.\r

Pharmacological properties and medical significance of dandelion officinalis 


Dandelion is a medicinal plant containing bitterness, which makes it useful for stimulating appetite and improving digestion. The reflex action of dandelion products is carried out by irritating the taste buds of the tongue and oral mucosa, which leads to excitation of the food center, and then to increased secretion of gastric juice and secretion of other digestive glands.\r

Biologically active substances of dandelion also have some choleretic, diuretic, antispasmodic laxative, antipyretic and diaphoretic properties. Dandelion has anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effects.\r

The plant has a tonic and metabolic-regulating effect, stimulates appetite and stimulates the secretion of milk in lactating women.\r

The use of dandelion officinalis 


Herbal products from dandelion roots are used both alone and in combination with other choleretic plants for cholecystitis, hepatocholecystitis, anacid gastritis complicated by pathology of the hepatobiliary system and chronic constipation.\r

Dandelion preparations or fresh roots of the plant are used to stimulate appetite, improve the secretory and motor activity of the stomach and intestines, increase bile secretion and secretion of the digestive glands.\r

Dandelion roots are part of mouth-watering teas, stomach and diuretic preparations. There is experience in the clinical use of herbal products of the plant for the prevention of general atherosclerosis.\r

Dandelion is used as a mild laxative for constipation, as a choleretic agent for diseases of the liver and gallbladder, as a sedative and diuretic for renal colic and gout.\r

In folk medicine, an infusion of roots (sometimes along with leaves) is taken orally for furunculosis, acne, skin rashes.\r

Fresh dandelion juice is recommended as an antihelminthic and tonic (50 ml 1-2 times every day).\r

Milky juice lubricates calluses and warts. There is evidence that dandelion leaves have a beneficial effect on snake bites. Roasted dandelion roots are used to make a coffee substitute.\r

In some European countries, young leaves are used for therapeutic purposes in beriberi, anemia, metabolic diseases of the joints and skin diseases.\r

Dandelion leaf salad is useful for liver diseases, stimulates the secretion of bile. To get rid of bitterness, the leaves are recommended to be immersed in salt water for half an hour before use.\r

Lightly toasted, dried and crushed roots are used to flavor and prepare coffee drinks. In many countries of Western Europe, special varieties of dandelion are cultivated as a vegetable crop.\r

Rules for harvesting dandelion officinalis 


Raw materials for medical purposes are roots that are harvested in autumn (September-October) or early spring at the beginning of regrowth (April). Plants are dug with shovels, shake off the ground, cut off the remains of the leaves, the tip of the root, the root collar and thin lateral roots. After that, they are washed in cold water and dried in the air for several days, until the milky juice ceases to stand out from them. Then the roots are dried in attics with good ventilation or under sheds, spread out in a thin layer on paper or cloth. Can be dried in ovens or dryers at a temperature of 40-50 ° C.\r

More than 200 species of dandelion grow in Ukraine alone, and only medicinal dandelion is used in medicine. And in order to avoid mistakes, when collecting raw materials, it will be necessary to know its morphological features. Raw materials should consist of slightly branched roots without a root collar, 2-15 cm long, longitudinally wrinkled, sometimes twisted, brown or dark brown on the outside. Inside, at the break, yellow wood. There is no smell. Taste – bittersweet with a slimy feel.\r

The moisture content of raw materials must be no more than 14%. In raw materials, poorly cleaned from the aerial part of the roots is allowed – up to 4%, flabby roots with lagging bark – up to 2%, browned and blackened roots at a break (less than 2 cm long) – up to 10%; organic impurities – up to 0.5%, mineral – up to 2%. The ash content should not exceed 8%, including ash soluble in 10% hydrochloric acid – 4%. Extractive substances extracted by water must be at least 40%.\r

Dry roots are packed in bales and bags. Store in dry, well-ventilated areas. Storage period up to 5 years.\r

Doses, dosage forms and method of application of dandelion officinalis 


Dandelion thick extract (Extractum Taraxaci spissum) dissolves in water to form a cloudy solution. Used as constituens in the manufacture of pills.\r

Dandelion root infusion (Infusum radicis Taraxaci): 10 g (1 tablespoon) of the roots are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml (1 cup) of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) with frequent stirring for 15 minutes , cool 45 min. at room temperature, filter, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days.\r

Take in a warm form 1/3 cup 3-4 times every day 15 minutes before meals as a bitter and choleretic agent.\r

Available in packs of 100 g. Roots are stored in a dry, cool place.\r

To normalize the work of the digestive glands, sometimes an infusion of dandelion officinalis is prepared as follows: take 2 teaspoons of dried and crushed roots of dandelion officinalis, pour a glass of cold water and keep in a cool place for 8 hours. The resulting infusion is drunk throughout the day half an hour before meals.

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