SAGE (Salvia officinalis L.)Perennial semi-shrub of the labiatae family (Labiatae), up to 1 m high. The plant has a strong aromatic smell. The root is strong, woody. Stems are branched, woody below, tetrahedral in the first year of life, at the base with short, densely leafy shoots. The leaves are oblong, opposite, petiolate, wrinkled, pubescent, especially on the underside, grayish-green, changing color to silver-gray when the growing season stops. Inflorescences simple or branched with 6-7 ten-flowered false whorls. The flowers are blue-purple, 2-lipped, sitting in the axils of the bracts. Salvia officinalis is a cross-pollinator. The fruit splits into 4 one-seeded nuts. Seeds are round-ovoid, smooth, black or dark brown. Blossoms in June – July, fruits ripen in September. Propagated by seeds. The homeland of medicinal sage is the Mediterranean countries, where it grows on dry mountain slopes. As a medicinal plant, the ancient Roman physician Galen and the author of Natural History Pliny the Elder wrote about it. The water infusion of the leaves is known as “Greek tea”. In southern Europe, sage has been called the “sacred herb”.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
For medicinal purposes, the leaves and grass of sage officinalis are used. Harvesting in the second year of vegetation begins in the phase of seed ripening (in early June), when the greatest amount of essential oil accumulates in the leaves, the second mowing is carried out no later than October. The grass is dried in the open air in the sun or in the shade, laying it out in a layer of 40-50 cm. To prevent loss of essential oil, artificial drying is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 35°C. The shelf life of raw materials is 1.5 years. The smell of raw materials is fragrant, the taste is bitter-spicy, astringent.
Essential oil cineole has a bactericidal effect, which is associated with the phytoncidal properties of the plant. Infusions and decoctions of sage leaves have antiseptic, anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-inflammatory properties are associated with tannins, flavonoid compounds and vitamin P, which thicken epithelial tissues, reduce the permeability of cell membranes, the walls of blood and lymphatic vessels. The antiseptic properties of sage leaves are due to the herbal antibiotic salvin. Salvin not only delays the reproduction of Staphylococcus aureus, but also inactivates its a-toxin, suppresses its hemolytic and dermatonecrotic properties. Infusions of sage leaves containing bitterness and essential oils increase the secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract, have a non-cordinal antispasmodic effect.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
Roots. In Korean medicine – as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent; in rheumatoid arthritis, pain in the extremities, algic dysmenorrhea, habitual miscarriage, menstrual irregularities, leucorrhea, inflammation of the lymph nodes, furunculosis and mastitis. Leaves. Infusion (in the form of heat) for rinsing – as an astringent, disinfectant and anti-inflammatory agent; with acute tonsillitis and chronic tonsillitis, acute respiratory diseases, stomatitis, gingivitis, aphthous lesions of the oral cavity, cheilitis, also for the treatment of pulpitis. Outwardly (general and local baths) – for eczema, psoriasis, neurodermatitis, intertriginous epidermophytosis, wounds, burns, frostbite, baldness of the scalp; in the form of douching – with vulvitis, vaginitis. In the complex of therapeutic measures (baths, applications) – with articular rheumatism, chronic inflammatory and metabolic-dystrophic diseases of the joints, deforming osteoarthritis, with radiculitis, intervertebral osteochondrosis. There is clinical experience in the use of herbal products of sage for gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum with reduced secretory activity of gastric juice, also with a tendency of the diseased to spastic conditions of the stomach and intestines. Sage is also used for inflammation of the bladder. In folk medicine – for gastritis, colitis, diseases of the liver, kidneys, inflammation of the gallbladder, bronchitis, to reduce the formation of milk in nursing mothers, with flatulence, infertility, to improve memory. Tea – with spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammation of the gastric mucosa, accompanied by low acidity of gastric juice; with peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, inflammation of the gallbladder and bladder, flatulence; during the climacteric period, in tuberculosis, in certain debilitating fevers (as reducing perspiration). It has anti-rotten properties. The sage leaf is part of a number of gastric and chest collections.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
Infusion of sage leaf (Infusum folii Salviae): 10 g (2 tablespoons) of raw material is placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water and heated in boiling water (in a water bath) for 15 minutes. Then they are cooled for 45 minutes, filtered and the remaining mass is squeezed out. The resulting infusion is brought to the original volume with boiled water. The infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take in a warm form, 1/3 cup 2-3 times every day before meals. The gargle infusion is prepared like a tea, infrequently adding 1/2 teaspoon of boric acid to a glass of infusion. Tincture of sage (Tinctura Salviae) in 70% alcohol. A clear green-brown liquid with a characteristic aromatic smell and taste. Salvin (Salvinum) is a plant antibiotic isolated from the leaves of sage medicinal (the extract is available in vials as a 1% solution of 10 ml each). It is used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent for chronic diseases of the oral cavity, catarrhal and ulcerative-necrotic gingivitis, stomatitis, and periodontal disease. An alcohol solution (1%) is diluted 4-10 times with distilled water or isotonic sodium chloride solution before use. The solution is lubricated with the affected mucous membranes, used for irrigation, applications, wetting of turundas, introduced into the periodontal pockets for 10 minutes. The course of treatment consists of 2-10 procedures at intervals of 1-2 days. Sage leaf (Folium Salviae) is produced in packs of 50 g. Stored in a cool, dry place. and insist 20-30 minutes. Take 1/4 cup 3-4 times every day. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS:
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
In the food industry, the leaves are added to spicy and pickled herring. In the USA they are used to flavor tea, tobacco, sausages, liver products, cheese, soft drinks, and also in spicy seasoning for pork. In many states, it is included in the composition of spice mixtures. It is very popular in the cuisine of Southern Europe and the USA. They are seasoned with salads, soups, vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, sweet dishes. In Italy, this spice is combined with rosemary. Sage gives a piquant flavor to grated cheeses and pie fillings. In China, it is consumed as a tea. Used in veterinary medicine. A good honey plant, in addition to sweet odorous nectar, secretes glue, which is also collected by bees. Honey of dark golden color, with a pleasant smell. Cultivated. The main areas of cultivation are in Moldova, the Crimea and the North Caucasus. Grown in specialized farms.
ELEMENTS OF AGROTECHNICAL CULTIVATION
Salvia officinalis is a drought-resistant and winter-hardy plant. Tolerates temperatures down to -30°C. Not particularly picky about the soil. Grows well on dry and loamy permeable soils. The best predecessors are fallow or fallow winter cereals. The site is prepared a year before sowing seeds in order to destroy perennial weeds. The soil is dug to a depth of 25-30 cm. When weeds appear, harrowing is carried out. Before sowing, the soil is loosened to a depth of 8-10 cm, weeds are removed and harrowed with a rake. Seeds are sown before winter, in November – December. The row spacing is made 60-70 cm. The seeds are planted to a depth of 1-2 cm. In the spring, the soil is cultivated after emergence. With the formation of 4-5 permanent leaves, the plants are thinned out, leaving them at a distance of 40-50 cm. The site is constantly loosened, freeing from weeds. After the subsequent collection of leaves, fertilizing with phosphate fertilizers is done. In order to obtain a high yield for the second and subsequent years, “rejuvenation” is carried out by cutting last year’s shoots near the ground in early spring. When sown in spring, it is sown with germinated seeds at the rate of 6-8 kg/ha. Shoots are found on the 18-21st day. Collected and dried seeds remain viable for 3 years. On one plot, sage is grown for 6-8 years or more. The average yield is 6-10 c/ha, with irrigation – up to 30 c/ha. Collected and dried seeds remain viable for 3 years. On one plot, sage is grown for 6-8 years or more. The average yield is 6-10 c/ha, with irrigation – up to 30 c/ha. Collected and dried seeds remain viable for 3 years. On one plot, sage is grown for 6-8 years or more. The average yield is 6-10 c/ha, with irrigation – up to 30 c/ha.