Cumin ordinary

Popular names: wild anise, kmen.

CUMIN ORDINARY (Carum carvi L.)Biennial herbaceous plant of the umbrella family (Umbelliferae), up to 110 cm in height. The root is powerful, fleshy, spindle-shaped, up to 20 cm long. The leaves are alternate, gradually decreasing towards the top of the stem, doubly or triple-pinnate, on short petioles with sheaths, the lower leaves are long-petiolate. In the first year it forms a basal rosette of leaves, in the second year a stem develops. The stem is smooth, slightly knotted or rounded, hollow, articulated. When the fruit ripens, the stem gradually turns brown and dries out. Each shoot ends with an inflorescence. The flowers are small, five-petalled, white, deeply notched, collected in a complex umbrella without a wrapper or with a wrapper consisting of 1-3 whole leaves. The fruit is an oblong vislocarp, which breaks up into 2 semi-fruits when ripe. Blooms in June – July fruits ripen in July – August in the second year of life. Propagated by seeds. Distributed in the European part of the CIS, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, the Caucasus, Western Siberia and Central Asia. It grows on fresh sandy and loamy soils in dry meadows, forest clearings and edges, along roads and roadsides, in pastures.


Medicinal raw materials are the fruits of cumin. They are harvested when at least half of the umbrellas ripen on the plant. Harvesting cumin is best done early in the morning or in the evening so that ripe fruits do not crumble. The stems are cut with sickles or knives and tied into sheaves. The plant can also be uprooted, then the seeds will be more complete. To ripen and dry the fruits, sheaves are traditionally left for some time in the field, but this leads to a significant loss of yield. To avoid losses, it is better to dry them indoors in the shade; then they thresh and clean the fruits on sieves with their subsequent blowing and cleaning from all kinds of impurities. The shelf life of raw materials is 3 years. The smell of raw materials is strong, fragrant, the taste is burning, bitter, spicy. Much of the need for cumin fruit is met through cultivation.


The fruits of cumin increase the secretory and motor activity of the stomach, somewhat increase bile secretion. However, the main pharmacological properties of fruits are an antispasmodic effect on the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract and the ability to inhibit enzymatic processes in gastrointestinal pathology. In addition, the fruits of cumin have a diuretic and lactogenic (in nursing mothers) effect, contribute to the separation of mucus and sputum. The essential oil has antiseptic and antihelminthic properties.


Fruit. In practical medicine, infusion – as enhancing the secretory function of the digestive glands in intestinal disorders, as a carminative and laxative; with flatulence, atonic constipation, colitis, dyspepsia in babies; as a tonic for intestinal atony. In folk medicine, a decoction is used for gastritis with low acidity, dyspepsia in babies, accumulation of gases in the intestines, anemia, hypogalactia (lack of milk in the mother). Powder – to stimulate appetite. They are part of gastric, carminative, appetizing, laxative and sedative preparations.


Caraway seed (Fructus Carvi) is often used with other herbal preparations (valerian, marsh cudweed, chamomile, etc.). Caraway oil (Oleum Carvi). Easily mobile transparent liquid, colorless or somewhat yellowish, quickly turns brown in the light and with access to air, with a characteristic caraway smell, spicy taste. Take 1-3 drops on sugar several times every day. Caraway water (Aqua Carvi): take 1 teaspoon for intestinal colic in babies; is part of tooth drops, used for rubbing with myositis. Infusion of cumin fruits (Infusum fructuum Carvi): 20 g (2 tablespoons) of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water and heat in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, filter, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take 1/3-1/2 cup 2-3 times every day after meals as a carminative.♦ Decoction of cumin fruits: 2 teaspoons of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 400 ml of water, cover the bowl and boil over low heat 5 min, after cooling, filter. Take 1/2 cup 3 times every day before meals as lactogenic.♦ Cumin fruit powder is taken 20-30 minutes before meals at the tip of a teaspoon handle. the dishes are closed and boiled over low heat for 5 minutes, after cooling, they are filtered. Take 1/2 cup 3 times every day before meals as lactogenic.♦ Cumin fruit powder is taken 20-30 minutes before meals at the tip of a teaspoon handle. the dishes are closed and boiled over low heat for 5 minutes, after cooling, they are filtered. Take 1/2 cup 3 times every day before meals as lactogenic.♦ Cumin fruit powder is taken 20-30 minutes before meals at the tip of a teaspoon handle.


The fruits are used in veterinary medicine as a flavor enhancer. Essential oil is used to flavor medicinal products. Young leaves and shoots are edible (salads, seasonings for meat and fish dishes). Fruits (seeds) are used in cooking, in baking, confectionery, canning, pickling (used for the preparation of spicy and pickled herring, anchovy, sprat) and alcoholic beverage production. In fatty cumin oil – up to 16% of a dense substance that can replace cocoa butter. Honey plant. Cultivated.


Cumin is a light-loving plant, especially in the initial growing season. When grown in the shade in the first year, cumin does not form fruits in the second year. This is used when growing cumin for greenery, when the plants easily tolerate shading. Can be used as a cover crop. The plant is moisture-loving, the greatest need for soil moisture coincides with the beginning of stemming, but cumin does not tolerate excess moisture. It is cultivated on a wide variety of soils, with the exception of marshy, acidic and soils with a close occurrence of groundwater. Light sandy soils are also of little use. After harvesting the predecessors (vegetable crops, potatoes), the earth is loosened, and after the mass germination of weeds, they are dug up to a depth of 20-25 cm. At the same time, 2-3 kg of manure, 20-30 g of superphosphate and 12-15 g potassium salt per 1 m 2. In early spring, thorough harrowing is carried out with the simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers: 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 20-25 g of superphosphate and 6-8 g of potassium salt per 1 m 2 . Sowing can be done in early spring, autumn or before winter. Seeds are sown in holes to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. The seeding rate is 0.8-1 g per 1 m 2 . The distance between rows is 20 cm. After the mass emergence of seedlings, the site is carefully loosened, weeded and thinned out, leaving a distance of 10-15 cm between plants. In the first year of life, cumin forms a basal rosette. At this time, it is fed twice with mineral fertilizers – 20-25 days after the emergence of seedlings and during the subsequent autumn loosening. The first top dressing – 10-14 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt and 12-15 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2 ; the second – 20-30 g of superphosphate and 12-25 g of potassium salt. In the second year, cumin grows in April. Plant care during this period consists in regular loosening and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers: 10-15 g of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium salt per 1 m 2 . During spring feeding, it is also good to apply organic fertilizers in the form of bird droppings in the amount of 0.5 kg, 0.7-1 kg of raw manure, 0.7-1 kg of slurry per 1 m 2 , also 0.4-0.5 kg of ash. Cumin is harvested with the onset of wax ripeness of the seeds, when 75-80% of them are brown in color. There are no zoned vegetable varieties, however, Khmelnitsky and Podolsky-9 varieties are zoned for technical purposes, which can be used for growing as spicy vegetable plants.


Cumin tincture.

Add cumin seeds (5 g) to vodka (0.5 l), leave for 10 days, then strain.

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