Name: Scotch pine
Common names: borina.
Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L.)A coniferous evergreen tree of the pine family (Pinaceae), up to 50 m high. The trunk is straight, with whorled branching, covered with red-brown, cracking bark. The buds are oval, covered with dry fringed scales, glued together with protruding resin. Leaves (needles) – long, hard, needle-shaped, dark green, arranged in pairs on shortened shoots, last 2-3 years. Staminate spikelets are numerous, gray-yellow, crowded at the base of the shoot; pistillate spikelets (cones) are placed on the same tree at the tops of the shoots, grayish-brown. After fertilization, the cones grow, become woody, the seeds ripen after 18 months. In March, they fall out of the kidneys, soon germinate. Seeds oblong-ovate. Blossoms in May – June from 15 years. Propagated by seeds. Lives up to 350-400 years. Distributed almost throughout the forest zone of the CIS. Growth in height in favorable soil and climatic conditions reaches 70-80 cm. It grows on sandy, sandy loam, podzolic, soddy, gley and peat-bog soils. An ancient Greek legend claims that the plant got its name from the nymph Pitis. Strongly loved Pitis cheerful and mischievous god Pan, the patron of fishermen and hunters. And Boreas, the god of the cold north wind, was just as jealous of her. Out of jealousy, he turned the nymph into a beautiful evergreen tree, called Pinus. And Pan was often depicted with a pine wreath on his head. Pine is one of the oldest medicinal plants. Its needles were included in compresses and poultices 5000 years ago. In ancient Egypt, pine resin was part of the embalming compositions. Proved that these compounds still (after 3000 years) have not lost their bactericidal properties. In Greece and Rome, pine was used in the treatment of colds. In Russia, it was customary to chew pine resin to strengthen teeth, gums, and to disinfect the oral cavity.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
For medicinal purposes, pine buds, pollen, needles, resin (resin), products obtained from pine: turpentine, tar, rosin, wood vinegar are used. The buds are harvested in the spring in March – April, when they swelled, but did not start growing and the scales covering them were pressed against the bud and glued together. If harvested too early (in February), the buds are small and contain fewer biologically active substances. The collection is carried out during spring logging, sanitary cleaning of pine plantations. When collecting in young plantings of the forest, it is strictly forbidden to collect apical buds. The destruction of the apical bud makes the tree unsuitable for further commercial wood production. The buds are collected in whole groups in the form of crowns (with the remains of branches within 3 mm in length), cutting them off with a knife or tearing them off with your hands. Single buds separated during collection are also used. Buds are not collected from old trees, as they are too small. The collected pine buds are dried in attics or under sheds with good ventilation, spreading them out in a thin layer (3-4 cm). It is impossible to dry raw materials in attics with an iron roof or in dryers, since with this method of drying the resin of the kidneys melts, the quality of raw materials often decreases. In good weather, in attics and under sheds, the raw material dries out in 5-10 days. The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. The smell of raw materials is fragrant, resinous, the taste is bitter, the color is pinkish-brown. Needles can be collected at any time of the year, but best of all in late autumn and winter, when it contains the largest amount of ascorbic acid and essential oil. obtaining chlorophyll paste from it, coniferous extract and coniferous-vitamin flour is produced on felled trees throughout the year, by breaking off shoots (up to 8 mm thick). Pine resin (liquid resin) is obtained during the growing season. Podsochku produced 5-10 years before felling the forest. Turpentine and rosin are isolated from the purified resin (turpentine). Uprooted tarred stumps are subjected to dry distillation. At the same time, turpentine, liquid tar and charcoal are obtained, and essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of branches (legs).
A decoction of pine buds acts as an expectorant by stimulating the secretory activity of the epithelium of the respiratory tract, reducing the viscosity of sputum, and stimulating the function of the ciliated epithelium. In addition, pine buds have a diuretic, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant effect. Preparations from pine needles have expectorant, antimicrobial, disinfectant, diuretic, antiscorbutic, analgesic properties.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
Kidneys. Water infusions and decoctions (inside) – as a disinfectant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, diuretic and choleretic agent for bronchitis, dropsy, rheumatism, diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Broth (in the form of inhalations) – with acute catarrh of the respiratory tract. Cones (young, red). Infusion, tincture – for pain in the heart. Green cones of the first year – as a hemostatic agent. Needles. Water infusion, decoction – in the prevention and treatment of hypo- and avitaminosis C, also in the form of therapeutic baths. Chlorophyll paste (externally) – for burns, wounds, some skin diseases. Pollen. In the form of tea – with rheumatism, gout; with honey after serious illnesses and operations. Tincture and infusion – for diseases of the lungs. Gum. Turpentine (externally) – with sciatica, lumboischialgia, neuralgia, myositis, rheumatism, gout. Turpentine liniment (externally) – for arthritis and other inflammatory processes. Purified turpentine oil (externally) – for sciatica, neuralgia, joint pain. Tar (in the form of 10-30% ointment) as an external disinfectant, antiparasitic agent for eczema, scaly deprive, scabies. Gum – for the treatment of long non-healing wounds, ulcers; infusion – for respiratory diseases. Branches. The yellow film of the bark of the branches is applied to wounds, ulcers, boils, carbuncles. Sawdust (steamed in boiling water) is applied to the lower back, sore joints. Shoots (young tops). Decoction (in milk) – for diseases of the respiratory system. antiparasitic agent for eczema, scaly lichen, scabies. Gum – for the treatment of long non-healing wounds, ulcers; infusion – for respiratory diseases. Branches. The yellow film of the bark of the branches is applied to wounds, ulcers, boils, carbuncles. Sawdust (steamed in boiling water) is applied to the lower back, sore joints. Shoots (young tops). Decoction (in milk) – for diseases of the respiratory system. antiparasitic agent for eczema, scaly lichen, scabies. Gum – for the treatment of long non-healing wounds, ulcers; infusion – for respiratory diseases. Branches. The yellow film of the bark of the branches is applied to wounds, ulcers, boils, carbuncles. Sawdust (steamed in boiling water) is applied to the lower back, sore joints. Shoots (young tops). Decoction (in milk) – for diseases of the respiratory system.
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
Purified turpentine oil, purified turpentine (Oleum Terebinthinae rectificatum) is obtained by steam distillation of oleoresin from Scots pine. It is used for rubbing into the skin mixed with petroleum jelly (1: 2). Complex turpentine liniment (Linimentum olei Terebinthinae compositum). The composition of the liniment includes: turpentine 40 ml, chloroform 20 ml, bleached or dope oil 40 ml. Terpin hydrate (Terpinum hydratum). Obtained from the linen fraction of turpentine. It is taken as an expectorant and sputum thinner for bronchitis and tracheobronchitis. Assign inside. Children under 1 year old – 0.025-0.05 g, at 2-4 years old 0.05-0.1 g, at 5-9 years old 0.15-0.2 g, at 10-14 years old – 0.25- 0.3 g. SIDE EFFECTS – nausea, vomiting. CONTRAINDICATIONS: gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum. Tablets of codeine phosphate and terpinhydrate. Ingredients: codeine phosphate 0.015 g,Norway spruce.Decoction of pine buds (Decoctum turiones Pini): 10 g (1 tablespoon) of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes. Then they are cooled for 10 minutes, filtered, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The resulting broth is brought with boiled water to 200 ml. The broth is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take 1/4-1/3 cup 2-3 times every day after meals as an expectorant and disinfectant. Infusion of pine needles. Pine needles are rubbed with a small amount of cold boiled water, and then poured with water in a 3- or 9-fold proportion. Acidify with citric acid to taste, boil for 20-40 minutes and insist for 1-3 hours. Then filter and take 1/4-1/2 cup every day.Norway spruce.♦ Vitamin infusion. Fresh needles are washed with cold water, finely cut with scissors (4 cups), pour 500 ml of cold water, add 2 teaspoons of table vinegar for acidification and leave to stand in a dark place for 2-3 days, then filter. Take 1 glass every day. ♦ Vitamin decoction. 50 g (5 tablespoons) of pine or spruce needles are poured into 250 ml of boiling water, boiled for 20-30 minutes in a water bath. To improve the taste, honey or sugar is added to the broth. The decoction is taken in 1/2 cup in the morning and in the evening. ♦ Infusion of pine buds: 10 g of crushed raw materials are poured into 250 ml of boiling water, insisted for 4 hours, then filtered. Take 1 tablespoon in 2-3 hours.♦ Infusion of needles, pine buds: 0.5-1 kg of needles and buds pour 3 liters of boiling water, leave for 3 hours, then filter. Used for baths.♦ Infusion of resin. Fresh resin (sap) is infused in water in the sun for 9 days. Take 1 teaspoon 2-3 times every day.♦ Decoction of pine shoots: 15 g of the tops of young shoots are infused in 500 ml of milk brought to a boil, then boiled over low heat for 10 minutes and insisted again for 2 hours. reception. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: high susceptibility to the plant, severe kidney disease. Turpentine in therapeutic doses causes hyperemia of the skin. With repeated use of turpentine, blisters rarely form on the skin, suppuration and tissue necrosis develops. Even with light rubbing, it can be absorbed into the blood, causing excitation of the central nervous system (anxiety, shortness of breath, increased blood pressure, insomnia). In severe poisoning, convulsions develop,
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
For economic purposes, fragrant oil is obtained from needles, which is widely used in the perfume industry for the manufacture of perfumes, soaps, and pine water. From the needles, after distillation of the essential oil, a coarse-fibred mass “Igley” (“Pine wool”) is obtained, which is used in furniture production as a stuffing material, for the manufacture of ropes, ropes, etc. Coniferous flour is a vitamin concentrate for farm animals. Infusion and decoction of needles, turpentine – in veterinary medicine. The needles have a pronounced phytoncidal effect, therefore, sanatoriums and hospitals for tuberculosis patients are being built in pine forests. Red paint is obtained from young shoots and cones. Rosin is used for the manufacture of plasters, and is also used in the soap, paper and paint industries. Fragrant substances are prepared from turpentine (with the smell of lily of the valley, rose, violet, etc.), used in perfumery. Turpentine is used in the paint and varnish industry as a solvent and in the production of varnishes. Pine charcoal is used in engineering, medicine, etc. Soot is used to make paints, roots are used to weave baskets, a cork surrogate is obtained from the bark. From pine resin, sealing wax, wheel ointment, varnish, sizing for paper, and high-quality rosin are obtained. Infusion of pine needles – an insecticide against apple codling moth, gooseberry and currant moth. Pine resin amber is a material for making jewelry. Wood is one of the main building materials. Masts, logs, boards, basket and roofing torches are made from it, firewood, coal, shavings are obtained, and they are used in housing and hydraulic engineering construction. The wood is straight grained, light, soft, slightly knotty, resinous, durable. Pine plantations are used for decorative purposes and for fixing sands. Recommended for single and group plantings, also for arrays in parks and forest parks. There are decorative varieties – pyramidal, weeping, etc. In beekeeping, the tree plays a secondary role.
1. Well-ground young pine needles (50 g) insist in boiled water (2 cups) for 2 hours in a dark, cool place. Add a little citric acid and granulated sugar to the filtered solution for taste. Consume immediately after preparation, as the drink loses vitamins during storage.2. In boiling water (215 ml), put thoroughly washed pine needles (40 g), sugar (8 g), lemon zest (1 g), cook for 30 minutes under the lid, strain, cool, add lemon juice (3 g).
Young pine shoots (7-10 cm) chop, boil and strain. Add granulated sugar (1 kg per 10 liters of broth) and cook until the consistency of liquid molasses, then bottle and store in a cold, dry place. To make beer, mix pine molasses with water in a ratio of 1:15, boil for 2 hours, let cool, put for fermentation, and then bottle, cork and keep in a cold place.
To prepare 150 ml of the drink, grind a few spruce or pine needles in a mortar, add raspberry syrup (30 ml) there, strain the syrup and carefully pour it onto the bottom of the glass. Carefully, along the blade of a knife so that the individual layers of the drink do not mix, pour chilled orange juice (70 ml) into the glass. Put ice cream (50 g) on top, decorate with a sprig of pine needles.