cyanosis blue

Popular names: cyanosis azure, azure, Greek valerian, overpowered-grass, St. John’s wort blue, double strength.

BLUE BLUE (Polemonium coeruleum L.)Perennial herbaceous plant of the cyanotic family (Polemoniaceae), with a short (up to 5 cm), thick (up to 3 cm) rhizome. In the first year of life, it forms a basal rosette of leaves, and in the second and subsequent years – stems. Young plants have single stems, older plants have several. The stem is erect, simple or slightly branched at the top, hollow, ribbed, leafy, up to 150 cm in height. The leaves are alternate, unpaired, smooth; lower with petioles, upper sessile, leaf lobes elliptical-lanceolate, acute. The flowers are blue, in a paniculate inflorescence, the calyx is five-parted, the corolla is wheel-shaped. The fruit is a tricuspid, multi-seeded pod, ovoid or spherical in shape. Seeds are small, almost black, narrow-winged. Blossoms from the second year in June – July, the fruits ripen in August – September, and when cultivated in July. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively. Distributed in the European part of the CIS, Western Siberia and in the south-west of Eastern Siberia. It is included in the list of species in need of preventive protection and rational use. Grows on soils quite rich in humus in damp places, river banks, meadows, forest edges, clearings, among shrubs.


Medicinal raw materials for cyanosis are rhizomes with roots (Rhizoma cum radicibus Polemonii). Rhizomes with roots of wild plants are harvested in autumn during the period of withering of the aerial parts of the plant. When digging, small and underdeveloped plants should be left in the soil, as well as 15-20% of the total number of fruit-bearing plants in each thicket for its restoration. At the dug roots, the stems are cut short and quickly washed in cold water. Large rhizomes are cut lengthwise into 2-4 parts and then subjected to air-solar or heat treatment (when drying in dryers, the temperature is 50-60°C). The shelf life of raw materials is 2 years. The smell of raw materials is weak, peculiar, the taste is bitter. In 1932, the pharmacologist M.N. Varlakov proposed replacing imported senega (USA) with raw materials for cyanosis.


The presence of a large amount of saponins (triterpene glycosides) in the plant determines its expectorant properties. In addition, cyanosis has soothing properties. According to the sedative activity of cyanosis in the experiment, it exceeds valerian officinalis by 8-10 times. Decoctions and infusions from the roots and rhizomes of cyanosis reduce motor activity, reflex excitability. Stimulates the function of the adrenal cortex, regulates lipid metabolism. Plant preparations significantly accelerate blood clotting. Cyanosis saponins inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. Cyanosis saponins and products from it can be used as a sedative for all kinds of disorders of the central nervous system, as well as for pathological conditions associated with impaired cholesterol metabolism.


Rhizomes, roots. Infusion, decoction, dry extract – expectorant, sedative and wound healing; with chronic and acute bronchitis, acute respiratory diseases, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis. In folk medicine, infusion – for epilepsy, pulmonary tuberculosis, whooping cough, febrile conditions, stomach and duodenal ulcers, dysentery; externally (poultices) – with snake bites. Aerial part. Infusion – for dysentery, nervous diseases; as a sedative, expectorant; powder – for bites of rabid animals. Flowers. Infusion – with whites.


Infusion of rhizomes with blue cyanosis roots (Infusum rhizoma cum radicibus Polemonii coerulei): 6 g (2 tablespoons) of raw materials are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml of hot boiled water, cover with a lid and heat in a water bath for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature temperature for 45 minutes, filter, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take as an expectorant 1 tablespoon 3-5 times every day after meals. In peptic ulcer – 1 tablespoon 3 times every day after eating at the same time as the infusion of cudweed marshmallow. 10 min, then filter. Take 1 tablespoon 4-5 times every day after meals. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: when used in large doses, it can cause vomiting, diarrhea, headaches and shortness of breath. As first aid in such cases, cardiac remedies should be used, and in more severe cases, gastric lavage. In therapeutic doses, cyanosis has low toxicity.


Rhizomes and roots in veterinary medicine – expectorant, sedative, antispasmodic for colic. Honey plant. Cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental plant. The yield of underground organs under culture conditions is up to 42 centners / ha (about 10-12 centners / ha), and seeds – 2-3 centners / ha. Animals do not eat cyanosis blue grass. Decorative, used for planting in groups near shrubs.


Blue cyanosis is propagated by seeds, seedlings and division of perennial rhizomes. Seeds are sown in the soil before winter or early spring. They germinate at a temperature of 2-3°C, and seedlings are found at 3-4°C. The plant is not very demanding on lighting; it grows well in long day conditions. In the first year, the plants develop slowly, in the second, faster, still under snow. Sinyukha prefers fertile soils with a light mechanical composition. Acidic soils with high standing groundwater are unsuitable for its cultivation. The best predecessors are row crops, perennial grasses and clean fallows. The area intended for sowing seeds is dug up to a depth of 4-5 cm, and after 15-20 days again – by 20-25 cm. 1 g per 1 m 2. Row spacing – 45-60 cm. Seeding depth 1-2 cm. Care of crops consists in weeding and inter-row tillage. The introduction of fertilizers, especially manure, increases the yield and quality of raw materials, the number of biologically active substances in the roots increases. For a better growth of rhizomes, it is recommended to “chasing” the stems during the stemming period – cut off their tops at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil plane; when new stems grow, this operation is repeated. Do not cut the tops of the stems only from plants left to receive seeds. 

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