Common name: Voloshsky walnut.
WALNUT (Juglans regia L.)A tree of the walnut family (Juglandaceae A. Rioh.), reaching 30 meters or more in height, with a powerful root system. The bark of the trunk is dark gray, cracking. The leaves are very large, pinnate, with 2-3-5 pairs of leaflets; the upper unpaired leaflet is larger than the lateral ones; leaflets oblong-ovate, entire, glabrous. Staminate flowers – in large earrings; pistillate flowers sit in 2-3. The fruit is a false drupe, oval or spherical in shape, with a green, leathery-fleshy outer within the carpel and a woody inner (stone); when ripe, the green within the fruit cracks and separates, and the stone with the seed inside is called a walnut. Blossoms in April – May when the leaves bloom, the fruits ripen in August – October. Begins to bear fruit from 10-12 years; gives maximum yields at the age of 100-180 (30-100) years. Counts, that individual specimens can live up to 2000 years. Propagated by seeds, sometimes layering and cuttings. This is a heat-loving, demanding culture for lighting and humidity. Prefers rich, moderately moist (but without stagnant water) calcareous loamy soils with a low and constant level of groundwater. The walnut is native to the Balkans. It grows wild in the Crimea, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Introduced into culture in places of its natural growth long before our era. In ancient Greece, the nut was dedicated to the goddess Artemis. According to one of the legends, the daughter of the Laconian king Carius, the beloved of the god Dionysus, was turned into a walnut tree. According to another legend, the girls who danced within the sacred tree were frightened of something and rushed under its protection. Suddenly they turned into nuts hanging from its branches. The abundant fruiting of the nut until the very old age seemed surprising to people, therefore in ancient Greece and Rome it was a symbol of abundance, prosperity and longevity. There was an interesting custom in Rome. Every young man kept a supply of nuts in his house. Going to get married, the young man went out into the street and threw them to his younger friends. He seemed to give them his passing youth, and the nut in this case was a symbol of eternal youth. In Babylon, priests forbade ordinary people to eat nuts, in ancient Greece they were presented to each other on solemn occasions, and in Rome, nuts were indispensable attributes of wedding ceremonies. There is a tradition in the Caucasus and Moldova: a child is born – they plant a walnut tree as his inheritance. One of the first descriptions of a walnut belongs to the “father of botany” Theofast. This plant is mentioned in the writings of Dioscorides, Cicero, Pliny, Virgil, Hippocrates. The latter recommended the green-shell decoction for gastro-intestinal disorders, and praised this remedy in his book Diet in Acute Diseases. In Russia in the 17th century, military doctors used walnut leaves as a wound healing agent.
COLLECTION AND DRYING OF RAW MATERIALS
Fruits (mainly green), leaves, bark, walnut roots are used as medicinal raw materials. The leaves are harvested at the end of May, when they are not yet fully developed and have a balsamic smell. The collection is carried out in dry weather, after the dew has dried. The leaves are torn off from the central petiole and dried in attics with good ventilation, spreading out in a thin layer. In the southern regions, solar drying is also acceptable. The fruits are harvested as they ripen, 3-4 times per season, shaking off with special poles with hooks at the ends. The collected nuts are cleaned from the outer shell, quickly washed and dried in the sun or in a dryer. In a dry room with a temperature of 10°C, they can be stored for a year, in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0°C – 2-4 years. The pericarp is harvested in August – September. They are cut in half blackened and damaged parts are separated and dried in ovens or dryers at a temperature of 30-40°C. Walnut oil is obtained by squeezing ripe seeds.
The plant has anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, moderately hypoglycemic, wound healing and epithelizing, bactericidal, anti-sclerotic, tonic, mild laxative and astringent properties; normalizes carbohydrate metabolism; well proven in the treatment of lymph nodes; regulates the functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
Bark of the trunk. Decoctions for ulcers, tumors, venereal diseases, scrofula and rickets. Leaves. Infusion and decoction – for chronic eczema, ringworm, exudative diathesis, scrofula and rickets, purulent wounds, boils, carbuncles; with pulmonary, skin and other forms of tuberculosis; diseases of the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat; as appetizing in stomach troubles; for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, scrofula, gout, anemia and beriberi; with whites, dysmenorrhea and venereal diseases, to strengthen and grow hair. They have anthelmintic properties. Ointment – for furunculosis and long-term non-healing wounds. Juice (inside) – to stimulate appetite and for gastric diseases, catarrhs of the stomach and intestines, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis of the brain, gout, anemia, beriberi, whites, dysmenorrhea, venereal diseases, for the expulsion of round worms; externally – for chronic eczema, ringworm, exudative diathesis, metabolic arthritis, all kinds of neoplasms, diathesis, rickets, purulent wounds, all forms of tuberculosis, diseases of the oropharyngeal mucosa. Leaves, within the carpel. Infusion (in the form of lotions, baths, washings) – for all kinds of skin diseases (purulent rashes, lichen, eczema, etc.). In homeopathy, an essence is used from the fresh green peel of the fruit and from the leaves. Fruits. Unripe – a source of ascorbic acid. In folk medicine, they are used similarly to leaves. Mature – as a means of improving the functioning of the liver and stomach; for the treatment of malaria and as an anthelmintic. Recommended for the diet of patients with high and low acidity. The oil has healing properties;
DOSAGE FORMS, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND DOSES
♦ Infusion of walnut leaves: pour 1 tablespoon of raw material into 200 ml of boiling water, insist until cool, then filter. Take 1/3 cup 3 times every day.♦ Ointment from walnut leaves: 15 g of crushed raw materials are poured into 100 g of refined sunflower oil, infused with frequent stirring for 7 days, after which they are heated in a boiling water bath for 3 hours , filter through cheesecloth, then bring to a boil again, boil for at least 30 minutes, mix with 15 g of beeswax and stir until completely cooled. ♦ Walnut leaf juice is squeezed from young fresh leaves. Take 1-2 teaspoons of juice with an equal amount of honey in a glass of water throughout the day. then cooled and filtered. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS: products from the leaves and within the walnut fruit increase the blood clotting ability, and therefore they should not be taken by patients with thrombophlebitis. When taking nut kernels, the dosage must be observed, since even a slight overdose can cause spasms of cerebral vessels in the front of the head, which causes headaches with the same localization.
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
It is used for afforestation and strengthening of mountain slopes and field-protective plantings. The roots give yellow and brown dyes for hair and silk. Wood is valued in furniture, turning, carpentry, used for the manufacture of plywood, musical instruments and art products. Caps are especially valued (a kilogram of a cap on the international market is equal in value to a kilogram of silver). The bark of the trunk is suitable for dyeing hair, silk, wool, wood in black and brown tones and for tanning leather. The leaves can be a source of ascorbic acid, used as a substitute for tea and tobacco. Suitable for tanning leather and dyeing fabrics, hair and wood. Fresh leaves have insecticidal and phytoncidal properties, they are used to control moths of fruit trees, the Colorado potato beetle and other garden pests. Ripe fruits are a valuable highly nutritious food product, used fresh, also in cooking and confectionery. Unripe go to jam and marinades. The shell is suitable for the production of activated carbon, grinding stones, linoleum, roofing. In the perfume industry, nut oil processing products are used. The cake obtained after pressing is a valuable food product (contains more than 40% of proteins and within 10% of fat), it is also fed to farm animals, primarily poultry. In a crop from one tree in harvest years, you can get up to 1600 kg of nuts. The plant is cultivated in the Caucasus, Ukraine, Moldova, Central Asia. The most famous varieties are Gissar, Ideal, Kazakhstan, Rodina, Thin-shelled, Uzbek skoroplodny and other Medonos. decorative,
Nut kernels (from 25 pcs.) Pass through a meat grinder and mix with white bread soaked in salted water. Grind the mixture with vegetable oil, pouring it in drop by drop until a homogeneous mass is obtained. Add lemon juice, put on a dish and garnish with cucumber slices.
Salad of stinging nettle and walnuts.
Rinse nettles (150 g), boil in boiling water and put on a sieve. Grind walnut kernels (50 g) with salt, add finely chopped onions and herbs, mix everything, salt and pepper.
Grated carrot salad with jam and nuts.
Grind carrots (150 g) on a fine grater, add jam (30 g), put in a salad bowl, garnish with cranberries (30 g) and sprinkle with toasted chopped walnut kernels.
Cheese with nuts and garlic.
Grind cheese (100 g) on a fine grater, mix with softened butter (50 g), nut kernels (5 g) and parsley (5 g), mix thoroughly and beat with mayonnaise (2 tablespoons).
Beetroot snack with nuts.
Bake beets (120 g) in the oven or boil, peel and grate together with cheese (60 g). Add crushed nut kernels (25 g), finely chopped garlic (4 g). Mix, salt, season with mayonnaise (60 g), sprinkle with herbs.
Celery with fruits and nuts.
Boiled celery (150 g) cut into strips, plums (150 g) peeled, pitted, divided into halves, add chopped walnut kernels (40 g), raisins (50 g). Mix everything, pour a mixture of vegetable oil and lemon juice (30-50 g), add sugar (to taste).
Salad of celery, apples and nuts.
Grind peeled celery root (80 g) and fresh apples (90 g) on a coarse grater, add crushed nut kernels (30 g), salt, black pepper. Dress the salad with a sauce made from vegetable oil (50 g) and egg yolk. Garnish the salad with parsley leaves.
Salad of tomatoes, onions, garlic and nuts.
Cut tomatoes (4-5 pcs.) into thin circles, onion (1 onion) into thin rings, crush garlic (2-3 cloves), finely chop the kernels of nuts (1/2 cup). It is better to crush garlic together with salt and vegetable oil (2-3 tablespoons). Put tomatoes in a salad bowl, onion rings on them, salt, pepper and mix with crushed garlic, sunflower oil and nuts. Refrigerate the salad before serving.
Bean soup with nuts.
Cook beans (50 g) until half cooked, add onion rings (30 g), fried in oil (30 g), pepper, finely chopped walnut kernels (50 g), salt. Cook until cooked, sprinkle with herbs.
Figs stuffed with cottage cheese and nuts.
Figs (50 g) soak, cut the core. Rub cottage cheese (50 g) through a sieve and mix with sugar (10 g) and 1/2 eggs, crushed nut kernels (12 g), finely chopped fig core. Stuff the figs with this mixture and bake. Serve with butter and sour cream.
Moscow walnut cake.
From flour (2 1/2 cups), butter (100 g), granulated sugar (1 1/2 cups), yolks (4 pcs.), Knead a stiff dough. Roll out the dough to a thickness of 1 cm and place in a mold. Peel the nut kernels (400 g) in a mortar (not very finely), add granulated sugar (1 1/2 cups) to the same place. Beat the protein until foam forms, carefully mix with nuts and put it all on the prepared dough. Bake in a non-hot oven 50-55 min. When the cake is ready, let it cool down.
Finely chop the nut kernels (140 g), add water, filter through a linen cloth or sieve. Add honey (90 g).