Medicinal sage – sage officinalis

A semi-shrub plant of the Labialaceae family. Stems are straight, branched, 20-70 cm tall, almost round, whitish-woolly with long wavy hairs. Stem leaves (partly wintering) are opposite, petiolate, leathery, ovate-oblong or elongate-elliptic, at the base rounded or oblong-cordate, at the apex obtuse or pointed, finely toothed at the edge, finely wrinkled on the surface, grayish-hairy on both sides, sown with abundant dotted glands; lower leaves often have one or two small blades at the base; bracts are ovate-lanceolate, sessile, purple-colored, membranous at the base, mostly equal to cups. The flowers are bisexual, irregular, form spurious 4-8-flowered, spread rings; calyx bell-shaped, hairy along the veins (15 of them), with triangular, pointed, ciliated teeth; the corolla is bright purple, double-lipped, with an almost straight upper lip and a three-lobed lower lip (the side lobes of the lower lip are bent, the middle one is styloid at the top). The fruit consists of four one-seeded nut-like lobes. Blooms in June – July.

Spread. The homeland of sage is the Mediterranean. On the territory of Ukraine, mostly in the southern regions, it is cultivated as an essential oil medicinal and decorative plant.

Procurement and storage . Sage leaves (Folia Salviae officinalis) are used for medicinal purposes, which are harvested in two periods: in June (the period of budding) and in September (the second growth). The harvesting technique can be different: either only the leaves themselves are harvested by hand and immediately dried, or the entire aerial part is harvested with sickles, and the resulting mass is dried and threshed, discarding the stems. Dry raw materials in a room with good ventilation or under a tent. In specialized farms, harvesting of raw materials is mechanized. Dried leaves are available in pharmacies.

Chemical composition . Sage leaves contain essential oil (up to 2.5%), condensed tannins (4%), triterpenic acids (ursolic and oleanolic), diterpenes, resinous (5-6%) and bitter substances, flavonoids, coumarin esculetin and other compounds. The composition of the essential oil includes cineole (up to 15%), thujone, pinene, salvene, borneol, camphor, sesquiterpene cedrene and other terpenoids.

Pharmacological properties and use. Medicinal sage has a multifaceted effect. Galenic preparations of sage have an astringent, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, expectorant, estrogenic and hypoglycemic effect, reduce sweating, stimulate the secretion of gastric juice, have a weakly expressed antiseptic property, have a hemostatic effect on damaged capillaries of blood vessels, strengthening their walls. In scientific medicine, they are mainly used externally: rinsing the mouth and throat with stomatitis, gingivitis, mouth ulcers, parotitis, tonsillitis, with catarrh of the upper respiratory tract; douching with inflammatory diseases of the vagina, with white hair and endocervicitis; lotions, washing, local and general baths for inflammatory skin diseases, purulent wounds and ulcers, light burns and frostbite. The drug Salvin (acetone extract from sage leaves) is used for catarrhal and ulcerative-necrotic gingivitis, acute and chronic aphthous stomatitis, periodontitis of the 1st-3rd degrees; chronic and acute periodontitis, adenophlegmon, abscess (after opening). Depending on the nature of the pathological process, salvin is prescribed for irrigation, lubrication, washing, applications, introduction of turunds into channels and pathological pockets (for 10 minutes). The course of treatment — from 2 to 10 sessions. Oral use of sage is indicated for gastritis and peptic ulcer disease of the stomach and duodenum with reduced secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract and acidity of gastric juice, as well as for patients prone to spastic conditions of the stomach and intestines, for inflammation of the urinary bladder, for hyperhidrosis (in the climacteric period, with some febrile conditions, tuberculosis). A positive therapeutic effect is also observed with inflammation of the respiratory tract, diarrhea of ​​various origins, inflammation of the liver and gall bladder, mild forms of diabetes. As an antidiabetic agent, sage is best used in combination with other medicinal plants. Sage infusion is given to breastfeeding mothers to suppress milk secretion. Sage is also used to treat hemorrhoids. The method of treatment (according to H. M. Sagalov) is as follows: after a cleansing enema with cooled boiled water, a medicinal enema is made from a concentrated infusion of 2-3 tablespoons of sage leaves per 100 ml of boiling water (infuse for 15-20 minutes, filter and inject with a syringe into the rectum). In order for the infusion to be absorbed, the patient should lie down for 20-30 minutes. Such procedures are done within a week (infusion is prepared daily). The patient is advised to refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages and avoid constipation (follow a suitable diet and take 2 dragees of buckthorn extract at night). Sage leaves are part of the ingredients for making breast teas, softening teas, stomach teas. In Egypt, after epidemics, women used sage as a food to increase fertility. When using sage products, it should be remembered that there is a big difference between the activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of sage, which is related to the degree of solubility of the active substances. Aqueous extracts are most effective for diabetes, indigestion, hyperhidrosis, and alcohol extracts are effective as an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent. It should also be borne in mind that that the use of alcohol extract in large quantities for a long time can cause a side effect in the form of epileptiform seizures. With inflammation of the kidneys and a strong cough, it is contraindicated to give sage products inside. Sage is used in homeopathy.

Medicinal forms and applications .

Internally – infusion (1 tablespoon of raw material per 400 ml of boiling water to infuse for 1 hour, strain) half a glass 3 times a day before meals;

tincture (made with 70% alcohol in a ratio of 1:10) 20 drops 3 times a day.

Externally , Salvinum is prescribed in the form of a 0.1-0.2% alcohol solution, which is prepared from a 1% alcohol solution by diluting it (4-10 times) with distilled water or isotonic sodium chloride solution;

rinsing, lotions and washing with infusion (10 g, or 2 tablespoons of raw materials per 200 ml of boiling water); rinsing with tincture (prepared as in the previous prescription; before use, dilute a teaspoon of tincture in a glass of water);

douching with infusion (20 g or 4 tablespoons of raw materials are infused for 10 minutes in a glass of boiling water, filtered, cooled and diluted with boiled water to 1 liter).

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