Perennial herbaceous plant 30-100 cm tall, containing orange milky juice in all organs. The root is taproot, branched, with a short rhizome. Stems branched. The leaves are alternate, green above, gray below, broadly elliptical outline. Leaf blades are deeply pinnatipartite with large ovate, sinuously lobed or incised-alternate lobes, often descending at the base; lower leaves petiolate; upper – seated. The flowers are collected at the end of the stems and branches in umbellate inflorescences on pedicels. Calyx with 2 sepals falling off when the flower opens. The corolla is correct, of 4 petals; petals bright yellow, obovate, up to 16 mm long. There are many stamens, they are shorter than the corolla. Pistil one, with upper ovary, elongated-cylindrical. The fruit is a pod, opening with two wings from the base to the top. Seeds are ovoid, black, shiny, with a white comb-like appendage. Blooms from May to autumn. The fruits ripen from June.
Celandine is widespread in the middle zone of the European part of Russia, in Western Siberia, in the Far East. Occurs as a weed in gardens, kitchen gardens, near dwellings, pastures.
Medicinal raw materials are grass, cake and fresh grass juice. Grass is collected during flowering, roots – in autumn. Raw materials are dried in the shade in the air or in a dryer.
The herb contains carotene, ascorbic acid, chelidonine alkaloid, sanguinarine, chelerythrine, hemochelidonine, methoxychelidonine, protopine, and organic acids.
Experiments have established that celandine alkaloids have a depressing effect on the central nervous system, cause a delay in the growth of malignant tumors, and have a fungistatic and bacteriostatic effect against mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chelidonin acts like morphine, causing depression in animals, and then paralysis of the central nervous system.
When used internally, this plant causes some slowing of the pulse and lowers blood pressure, has a choleretic property. It is used for angina pectoris, hypertension, for all kinds of diseases accompanied by muscle spasm; in stomach cancer, it acts somewhat analgesically, it is successfully used in diseases of the liver and gallbladder.
In the clinic of hospital surgery of the Kuibyshev Medical Institute, 700 patients with various forms of colon polyposis were successfully treated. This disease is very serious, since in 60% of cases adenomas become malignant. According to doctors, the effect is based on the cauterizing, keratotic effect of celandine on tissues. For 1 part of celandine 10 parts of water, for the procedure – 15-60 g of the green mass of the plant (depending on the weight of the patient). The resulting liquid is administered in the form of a therapeutic enema for an hour. 3 hours before doing a cleansing enema. For 6-10 procedures (during the growing season of celandine – 2 cycles), patients were clinically completely freed from polyps. Treatment – 2-3 years during the flowering period of the plant.
Of undoubted interest are the observations of Baranov, who used intratumoral injections of an extract from the herb of celandine for therapeutic purposes in patients with cancer of the red border of the lower lip and skin of the upper lip. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in all cases. As the author notes, after 2-, 3- and 4-fold intratumoral injections of the extract in doses from 0.5 to 4 ml, the reverse development of tumors was observed, ending with their complete regression with the formation of a tender, painless scar.
Tincture of fresh celandine roots is part of a complex product used for cholelithiasis.
Celandine is also used in small doses for diseases of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts.
Thirty percent tincture is used to cauterize gum pockets with periodontitis, the ointment is used for psoriasis, skin cancer and calluses.
In folk medicine, celandine is used for cancer (1 tablespoon of grass is brewed with a glass of water and drunk 1 tablespoon 3-4 times every day), for pain in the heart, pulmonary tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases; with dysentery, they drink a decoction of the roots, they drink a decoction for jaundice, gout, as a diuretic, laxative and anesthetic; with tuberculosis of the skin, with ulcers, wounds, skin diseases. Outwardly – from warts, corns, lichens, with eczema, skin cancer in the form of lubrication with fresh juice or ointment prepared with it, by lubricating diseased areas three times every day. Wounds are washed with fresh juice or decoction, compresses are made for boils, boils. Instilled with fresh juice for walleye, trachoma, put on a bad tooth. Give cattle to drink a decoction or infusion with bloody urine and as an anthelmintic.
In a decoction of grass, it is recommended to bathe babies with scrofula and all kinds of skin diseases.
Due to some poisonousness of the plant, they will need to start treatment with small doses or mixed with other plants.
The infusion is made from 1 g of dried leaves, brewing them with a glass of boiling water, and to make a decoction, the indicated number of leaves is brewed with two glasses of water, boiled for 10 minutes. after cooling, the infusion and decoction are filtered and taken orally, 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times every day.
With polyposis of the rectum, an infusion is prepared at the rate of 1 g per 1 kg of the patient’s weight and poured with ten times the amount of boiling water.