tea bush

Evergreen shrub or small tree of the tea family, with erect branches, leathery, elliptical, serrated leaves, with white fluffy flowers with a yellowish or slightly pinkish tinge, sitting singly or 2-4 in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a three-leaved capsule with shiny rounded seeds, more than 1 cm in diameter. Blossoms in August-November, fruits ripen in November-December.

In the CIS, tea is cultivated in Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Krasnodar Territory.

Leaves are medicinal raw materials. The leaves contain up to 35% of tannins, alkaloids caffeine (2-5%), theophylline, theobromine and other flavonoids, essential oil, enzymes, vitamins C, B1; K, P and PP. To make tea, young tops of shoots (flyschs) are collected, on which no more than three young leaves are located. The leaves are spread on the shelves and subjected to withering, as a result they become soft. Then the leaves are twisted and in this form the fermentation process continues in them, leading to significant changes in their chemical composition. During this period, tea absorbs odorous substances well and is often subjected to aromatization. By the end of fermentation, the leaves acquire a specific tea aroma and a copper-red color. After subsequent drying with hot air in special dryers, they turn black. In this form, tea goes to tea-packing factories.

Green tea is widely used in Central Asia. For its preparation, young leaves are also used, but subjected to fermentation. Dry them immediately after collection. Green tea is less aromatic, but physiologically more active. Pressed tiles of black or green (“brick”) tea are made from tea screenings or coarse leaves collected in autumn.

Part of the leaves and branches of the tea bush, cut when caring for plants on plantations, as well as tea dust remaining in tea-packing factories, are the main source of industrial production of caffeine in the country. Due to its physiological action, this substance occupies a prominent place in the arsenal of therapeutic agents. Caffeine excites the cerebral cortex, enhances reflex activity, speeds up and deepens breathing, enhances the activity of the heart, increases low blood pressure, dilates the vessels of the brain, heart and kidneys, increases urination, secretion of gastric juice.

The pharmaceutical industry produces products of caffeine alkaloid and its compounds with another substance – caffeine-sodium benzoate in various medicinal forms. Caffeine preparations are used to stimulate mental and physical performance, in case of poisoning, insufficiency of cardiovascular activity, migraine associated with vasospasm. Caffeine is a potent stimulant and should not be used for hyperexcitability, insomnia, organic diseases of the cardiovascular system, atherosclerosis and hypertension.

Hot water infusion of tea is a commonly used drink. When drinking tea, the whole complex of substances contained in it affects the human body. However, the stimulating properties of the drink are mainly due to caffeine, which, when infused, very easily goes into solution. A significant part of other physiologically active substances of tea, including vitamins, passes into the hot infusion. The color and tart taste of the infusion is given by tannins, the aroma – by essential oils.

Various types of tea contain various amounts of caffeine, tannins, aromatic and other substances. There is more caffeine, tannin and extractives in Indian tea than in others, so it gives a thicker infusion and more tones the body. Of the domestic varieties, Krasnodar tea is close to it.

Tea is widely used in medicine. Strong tea is recommended to be given as first aid for poisoning that causes depression of the central nervous system, weakening of cardiac activity and respiration. Due to the high content of tannins, tea has an astringent effect and improves digestion. It should be drunk with acute diarrhea and other disorders of the intestine or its activity.


Green tea has antimicrobial properties. In this regard, a decoction of green tea (oz. h.) is proposed for the treatment of dysentery. To prepare it, 100 g of dry green tea is poured into 2 liters of water, infused for 20-30 minutes, then boiled for an hour, stirring occasionally. Removed from the fire, the broth is filtered through a double layer of gauze. The rest of the tea (brewing) is again poured into 1 liter of water and boiled for 40 minutes, after which the broth is again filtered through gauze. Both filtrates are mixed, bottled and sterilized, after which the finished product can be stored in the refrigerator for six months, and at traditional room temperature in a dark place for 3 months. Take the product for 1-2 tbsp. spoons 4 times every day 20-30 minutes before meals (children up to a year are given 1-2 teaspoons, and over a year – 1-2 dessert spoons). The course of treatment of acute dysentery lasts 5-10 days, chronic – 16-20 days. In severe forms of the disease, Fr. h. hours can be taken in enemas. O. h. hours are also indicated for colitis, enterocolitis and dyspepsia.

A strong tea infusion is used to protect against excessive sunburn. To do this, before going out into the sun, you should wash your face with tea and wipe the exposed parts of the body. Strong tea compresses relieve pain and heat from sunburn.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *