Scotch pine – Scotch pine

Name: Scotch pine – Scotch pine

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris); forest pine; Pine family (Ripaceae); Scots pine 

Pine is a widespread main forest-forming species. The height of the tree is 25-30 m, but there are also 50-meter specimens. The plant lives from 150 to 500 years. Its crown is conical or pyramidal. The leaves (needles) are linear, 4.5-7 cm long, dark green, convex on top, and grooved on the bottom. There are two on shortened shoots. The change of needles does not occur annually, but after 3-4 years. Male cones are yellow or reddish (the plant is monoecious), female cones are reddish. Young cones are green, and when they ripen, their seeds are grayish-brown. Flowers are pollinated in May, cones ripen in September. Common pine is common from the western borders of Russia to the Far East, where it occurs in the southernmost part of Primorye and in the Caucasus. To the north it penetrates to the Kola Peninsula inclusively. In Ukraine, it grows in Polissia, the west of the country,

For the preparation of medicinal and vitamin products, young shoots 1-4 cm long, placed on the tops of the branches, so-called buds, needles and resin, which flows out when the bark is wounded, are used. Special oblique incisions are made on the trunks for harvesting resin. Later, turpentine and camphor are obtained from it. Pine buds are harvested mostly during felling, usually from lateral shoots. For vitamin infusions, young needles are collected and used immediately to prevent loss of vitamin C.

Pine buds contain a large amount of essential oil and bitter substances. They are available in specialized pharmacies. The needles contain resin (7-12%), vitamin K, carotene (provitamin A), vitamin C (up to 0.2%), tannins and essential oil. The further north, the more vitamins the needles of the tree contain, the higher their concentration

tration and in winter. Pine seeds contain up to 20% fatty oil.

Preparations from pine buds are an effective disinfectant, expectorant, diuretic and choleretic agent. A decoction of buds is prescribed internally for diseases of the respiratory tract, rheumatism, gout, diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, inflammation of the gall bladder and as a blood purifier in folk medicine. Decoctions of buds are used to make baths for rheumatism, inhalations for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

Infusion of needles is used primarily as an antiscurvy agent. Needle extract is used for therapeutic baths, especially for neuroses, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases and as a tonic.

To prepare an anti-scurvy drink, take 50 g of fresh young needles, grind and infuse in 400 ml of boiled water for 2 hours. in a dark and cool place. A little sugar is added to the drink for taste. Drink the infusion immediately, as it loses vitamins during storage.

In some places in Siberia and in the north of the European part of Russia, the juicy, sweet sapwood of pines is crushed and eaten. Dried sapwood is ground and added to grain flour.

Decoction of buds. 1 tablespoon of raw material per 200 ml of boiling water, heat in a boiling water bath for 15-20 minutes, filter, squeeze, bring to the original volume with warm boiled water. Take 1/2-1/3 cup 2-3 times a day after meals.

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