Scopolia light yellow – scopol_ya light yellow (growing and cultivation)

Name: Scopolia light yellow – scopol_ya light yellow (growing and cultivation)

Scopolia light yellow (scopolia light yellow) Scopora lurida Duna 1 ( Anisodum luridus (Dunal and nketotto). 

\rSynonym: Scopolia Himalayan.

\rDescription. A perennial large herbaceous plant from the nightshade family (Solanaceae), 11.5 m high. The rhizome is short, many-headed, fleshy, thick (1.512 cm in diameter), with a thickened underground root neck, from which many underground shoots extend in all directions; the main root goes deep into the soil. Stems erect, branched, rounded, leafy, pubescent at the top. The leaves are alternate, large (1520 cm long). Flowers solitary, 45 cm long, drooping; the calyx is 34 cm shorter than the corolla. Corolla pale, yellowish green. The fruit is a multi-seeded pod. Seeds are irregularly round, dark brown, 23 mm long. Weight of 1000 seeds 45 g. Blossoms in June July.

\rThe plant is poisonous.

\rMedicinal raw materials: roots and rhizomes.

\rbiological features . Scopolia light yellow moisture-loving and heat-loving plant. Its homeland is the Himalayas with their specific alpine conditions. VILROM established that scopolia seeds at a temperature of 2325 ° C germinate on the fourth day, and at a temperature below 10 ° C only on the thirty-fourth. Mass flowering occurs from the second half of June to the middle of July, but the seeds are not tied at this time, as the flowers fall off. Only a little later, the plant blooms again already with the formation of seeds.

\rHabitat. It grows at an altitude within 2000 m above sea level in the mountain forest zone, on red and black earth, highly fertile soils.

\rDistribution . Scopolia light yellow is found in the central Himalayas, where over 1000 mm of precipitation falls annually.

\rIn the USSR, introduced into culture in the Moscow region.

\rComposition of active substances. All parts of light yellow scopolia contain alkaloids: roots up to 4%, leaves 0.31.3, stems 0.21.3%. The main ones are atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The roots are the raw material for the production of atropine and for the production of the product himalin, which is a natural mixture of hyoscyamine (within 80%) and atropine (within 15%).

\rApplication. Of the light yellow alkaloids present in scopolia, atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are of great use. The first of them is used in ophthalmic practice to dilate the pupils, with peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, with bronchial asthma, hepatic, renal and intestinal colic. Hyoscyamine is similar to atropine in its effect on the central nervous system; it is part of the antiemetic Aeron. A mixture of sulfate compounds of hyoscyamine and atropine salts (himalin) is used for acute gastrointestinal spasms, exacerbations of peptic ulcer, spastic colitis.

\rAgrotechnics of cultivation. Site selection. The best soils for light yellow scopolia are chernozems, also medium podzolic, light, highly fertile loams with high humidity, located in low places. The best precursors are a layer or turnover of a layer of perennial grasses; fallow wedges and winter crops walking on fertilized black fallow.

\rSoil cultivation. Soil cultivation for scopolia depends on what the predecessor was, perennial grasses, fallow or crops. However, due to the fact that scopolia is moisture-loving, it will be necessary to create agricultural practices that help maintain sufficient soil moisture.

\rApplication of fertilizers. Under the main plowing on neutral and slightly acidic soils, it is recommended to apply 60 t/ha of manure and 5 t/ha of superphosphate, and on soils with high acidity 60 t/ha of manure and 10 t/ha of phosphorite flour.

\rReproduction. Scopolia light yellow is likely to be propagated in three ways: direct sowing of seeds into the ground, preliminary cultivation of seedlings in peat pots and vegetatively by the eyes of the root collar. The simplest and most profitable is the direct sowing of seeds in the ground. Sow in the spring at an air temperature of at least 10 ° C in row, nest or square nest methods.

\rTo obtain seedlings, seeds are sown in March in peat pots, which are placed in warm greenhouses. After the appearance of four or five pairs of true leaves, the plants are planted in a permanent place (this happens in late May and early June).

\rReproduction by the eyes of the root collar is carried out in the spring, when the awakening of dormant buds begins. At this time, the roots are dug up and the tops are cut off from them, which are cut according to the number of buds laid on their plane and immediately planted on a pre-prepared site.

\rPlantation care. Care of crops and plantings of scopolia mainly consists in loosening row spacing and weeding out even before germination. In the future, the cultivation of row spacing and weeding is carried out approximately four to five times during the summer as needed.

\rBouquets are carried out on ordinary crops, leaving 3-4 plants in each bouquet at a distance of 75 cm. On these, as well as nesting crops and plantings, inter-row seeding is carried out in 2 directions, which significantly reduces plantation processing costs. Starting from the second year, two top dressings with mineral fertilizers are produced annually: the first in the spring before the stems melt, the second before the rows close.

\rHarvest. For convenience, the above-ground part of the plants is first mowed and removed from the plantation. The roots are dug out mechanized: on 2-3-year-old plantations with a three-furrow tractor plow of the P-3-30 brand, and on four-year-old plantations, it is better with a plantation plow of the PP-50 brand. The yield of air-dry roots in different years is different: 35 c/ha in the first year, up to 65 c/ha in the fourth. The average yield of air-dry roots is 2030 q/ha.

\rGrowing seeds. To grow a good crop of seeds, it is necessary to allocate special areas with high humidity, clean from weeds and pests. All agricultural practices are carried out at a high level. Fertilize with mineral fertilizers twice a summer (in early spring before regrowth and before budding). Since the seeds do not ripen at the same time, the boxes are harvested by hand in several stages. Dry boxes are threshed on threshers.

\rDrying. The roots collected and cleaned from the ground are cut into small pieces on root cutters and transferred to the dryer, where they are first dried at a temperature of 40 ° C, finally dried at 6065 ° C.

\rPack . The roots are packed in bales or bags of 2530 kg.

\rStorage. Store raw materials in a dry, well-ventilated area, in compliance with the rules for storing poisonous plants.

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