Peeled chamomile – likarska chamomile (harvesting and storage)

Name: Peeled chamomile – chamomile lіkarska (harvesting and storage)

Peeled chamomile (chamomile medicinal) – Matricaria cutita L. (M. chamomilla A and c t.). The Ukrainian name is chamomile likarska , popular names are rum’yanok, rumenets, rumenka, romanets, romanitsya, romanok, raman, roman, hupavka; meadow, camille.

Compositae family – Asteraceae (Compositae).

Inflorescences are used for medicinal purposes.

It occurs as a weed almost throughout Ukraine, but not often in Polissya. Grows in yards, streets, roadsides, pastures, young fallows, gardens, vineyards, parks. Usually forms sparse groups and small thickets, sometimes large massifs (in the Sivash part of the Crimean and Black Sea parts of the Kherson regions on saline meadows, fallows, also in crops of grain crops and perennial grasses).

Stocks of raw materials are large, but not permanent.

Harvesting reaches 200-250 tons of inflorescences, however, in years with a dry spring, there are almost no plants. In connection with the plowing of deposits and pastures in the areas of growth of industrial thickets and intensive grazing of livestock in the remaining virgin areas, the reserves of raw materials are rapidly declining. The plant is successfully introduced into industrial culture in the state farms of Soyuzlekrasprom. The average annual harvest of chamomile inflorescences in the republic in 1974-1976. amounted to 130 tons.

Peeled chamomile is an annual, with a taproot, poorly developed, slightly branched root. Stem 15-60 cm high, branched. Leaves alternate, sessile. The flowers are collected in baskets at the top and branches of the stem. The fruits are oblong seeds. Blossoms in May, in weedy places flowering is delayed until June – July. The fruits ripen in June. The plant has a strong aromatic smell.

You can also harvest and use raw chamomile without reeds.

It is not allowed to harvest other “chamomile” plants, which can be distinguished by a number of signs.

Harvested chamomile inflorescences are harvested during flowering, when the tubular flowers in the basket have opened to half, and the marginal ones have not yet begun to fall down. If you are late with the collection of the baskets, they fall apart during drying. They are collected by tearing them off with their hands or with special strokes, which make it possible to increase labor productivity many times over.

Dry in the open air, spreading a thin layer (2-3 cm) on paper or cloth and stirring occasionally. Can be dried in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40 °. Yield of dry raw materials 20%,

According to GF-X Art. 270, GOST 2237-75 raw material consists of whole baskets 4-8 mm tall and 4-8 mm in diameter at the base, hemispherical or conical on top, yellowish-green, with white marginal flowers. The length of the pedicels is not more than 3 cm. The smell is strong, fragrant, especially when rubbed. The taste is bitter, spicy, with a feeling of sliminess. Humidity is not higher than 14%. Not more than (percent) is allowed in the raw materials: baskets with peduncles longer than 3 cm and other parts of the plant – 9, baskets with a changed color (brown or blackened) – 5, crushed parts (passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm) – 20, others parts of chamomile (leaves and stems) – 1, organic impurities – 1, mineral – 0.5.

The ash content should not exceed 12%, including 4% insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid, organic impurities up to 3%, mineral up to 1%. Essential oil should be at least 0.3%.

Raw chamomile is packed in plywood boxes weighing 10-20 kg lined with thick paper, also in untreated paper bags of 5-8 kg. It is stored in the group of essential oil raw materials in well-ventilated, dry rooms on undercarriages or racks. Storage period up to 2 years. The content of essential oil is controlled annually (should be at least 0.2%).

Inflorescences contain up to 0.8% essential oil (the main component is chamazulene, terpenes, sesquiterpenes), organic acids, flavonoids, phytosterol, vitamin C, A], bitterness, mucus, gums.

It is used as a diaphoretic, carminative, soothing, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant in the form of an aqueous infusion, also for rinsing, lotions, baths. Included in all fees. It is also used in perfume and liquor industries.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *