If you compare the fir tree with our ordinary Christmas tree, the comparison will, of course, be in favor of the fir tree. Strict, slender, pyramidal shape of the crown, smooth, in contrast to the rough bark of spruce, dark green aromatic needles. Siberian fir is a tree up to 30 (sometimes 40) m tall. The bark is gray, in old trees it is fissured. The diameter of the trunk is up to 1.5 m. It lives up to 300-400 years, sometimes even longer. This is one of the most important forest-forming species. It grows in the northeastern part of Russia, Western and Eastern Siberia. It also grows in Northern Mongolia and Northern China. In Ukraine, the plant is grown in gardens and parks.
Fir has long been used in scientific and folk medicine. Buds, young shoots, needles and resin are prepared for the preparation of medicines. Shoots are collected in May or the first decade of June and used fresh. Resin is harvested during the growth period of young cones (June-August). From the needles, shoots and resin, essential oil is obtained, which is used for the production of camphor, as well as turpentine.
Buds, shoots, needles and cones of fir contain complex essential oil (up to 3%), tannins, ascorbic acid (up to 0.3%).
Camphor products obtained from plant raw materials are widely used in scientific medicine. Camphor oil solution injected under the skin stimulates and tones the vascular center, activates and improves metabolic processes in the myocardium. At the same time, the separation of sputum is also facilitated. The drug is used for acute heart failure, respiratory depression due to lung inflammation, infections and drug poisoning. Camphor is contraindicated with a tendency to convulsions and epilepsy. As a constituent part, it is included in many medical products, for example, aerosol “Camphomen”, various ointments, which are used for rheumatism and arthritis to relieve pain and fight inflammation.
Infusions of buds or shoots are used in folk medicine as an expectorant, diuretic, disinfectant and blood purifier. These products are taken internally for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, bronchitis, inflammation of the lungs, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and gout. A decoction of needles has anti-scurvy properties. Externally, infusions and decoctions of needles are used for rinsing, washing, compresses and rubbing. Fir oil is a strong antiseptic, it is used internally and externally in folk medicine and cosmetology.
Decoction of buds. 1 tablespoon of raw material per 200 ml of boiling water. Heat in a water bath for 15-20 minutes, filter, wring out, bring to the original volume with warm boiled water. Take 1/3 cup 2-3 times a day after meals.
Infusion of young shoots. 30 g of raw material per 1 liter of boiling water. Insist for 10 minutes, filter. Take 1.5 cups 3 times a day.
Fir oil. 3-4 drops of oil are instilled from a pipette on the root of the tongue 2 times a day (in the morning and before going to bed) with a strong cough. Pure fir oil is rubbed into previously warmed (after a bath or compress) joints – in rheumatoid polyarthritis and arthritis of inflammatory origin, as well as in radiculitis, sciatica and myositis.
The use of fir oil is contraindicated during pregnancy.