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brain contusion

brain contusion Brain contusion – TBI, characterized by focal macrostructural damage to the medulla of varying severity. It is diagnosed in cases where cerebral symptoms complement the signs of focal brain damage. Pathomorphology Changes in the focus of injury Destruction (crushing) of the brain substance Small-point hemorrhages (due to rupture of blood vessels under the influence of […]

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Drowning

Drowning When drowning, pronounced hypoxemia, respiratory failure, hypercapnia due to aspiration of water and reflex spasm of the larynx are noted. Aspiration of fluid and solids is the root cause of pneumonitis, damage to alveolar endothelial cells, atelectasis, and impaired surfactant secretion. Even without aspiration of water, reflex spasm of the larynx can cause asphyxia. Loss of surfactant,

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Urethritis

Urethritis Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. The most common causative agent is Chlamydia trachomatis. Frequency. Worldwide, 250 million cases are registered annually. Classification infectious Nonspecific (bacterial, viral, caused by mycoplasmas, caused by chlamydia, mycotic) Specific (gonorrheal, trichomonas) Non-infectious Traumatic – urethritis is caused by the introduction of foreign bodies into the urethra, most often masturbation allergic Caused by the

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Bites of poisonous snakes

Bites of poisonous snakes Etiology – bites of sea snakes, asps (Central Asian cobra), pit snakes (Asian, eastern and rocky muzzle), vipers (gyurza, sand efa, common viper, steppe viper, Radde viper, Caucasian viper, nosed viper). Clinical picture cobra bite In the first minutes after the bite – numbness and pain in the bite area, quickly spreading

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Insect bites

Etiology – bites (stings) of scorpions, spiders (karakurt), wasps, bees, centipedes. Clinical picture Scorpion stings Sharp excruciating pain in the area of ​​poison inoculation The severity of hyperemia and edema in the affected area varies. With a weak local reaction, general intoxication is more pronounced than with a significant local inflammatory reaction. Sometimes in the sting zone,

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Animal bites

Animal bites Frequency. UK Risk factors Dogs bite more often in the late afternoon, especially in warm or hot weather, do not like scantily clad people Cats are more likely to bite in the morning Alcohol Intake: Dogs do not like the smell of alcohol. Clinical picture – bitten wounds are represented by abrasions, scratches, the

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acne rosacea

acne rosacea Pink acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands caused by constitutional angiopathy, neuroendocrine disorders and dysfunction of the digestive organs. Frequency – 4-5% of patients (most often women 30-50 years old) who applied to a dermatologist. Etiology. Endocrine and vegetative-vascular disorders (dysfunction of the thyroid or sex glands), diseases of the gastrointestinal

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acne vulgaris

acne vulgaris Acne – androgen-stimulated inflammation of the sebaceous glands, leading to the formation of comedones, papules, inflammatory pustules and (sometimes) scarring; first detected during puberty and adolescence. Frequency. Almost all adolescents have acne of varying severity. 15% of adolescents seek medical help. Men are more often affected. Risk factors Use of androgenic steroids (eg, abuse of anabolic steroids) and some

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Oppression of consciousness

Oppression of consciousness Consciousness is a meaningful perception of the inner and outer world as a result of higher integrative processes. Depression of consciousness is an unproductive form of impaired consciousness, characterized by a lack of mental activity with a decrease in the level of wakefulness, a distinct inhibition of intellectual functions and motor activity Depression

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Uveitis

Uveitis Uveitis– inflammation of the choroid of the eyeball. Anatomically, the choroid of the eyeball is divided into the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid itself, located behind the ciliary body and making up almost 2/3 of the choroid (actually lines the retina from the outside). The blood supply to the choroid itself is carried out

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